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Microelectronic pill is basically a multichannel sensor used for remote biomedical measurements using micro technology This is used

for the real-time measurement parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Also used for the detection of disease and abnormalities in the GI tract where restricted area prevented the use of traditional endoscopy. The unit comprises an outer biocompatible capsule encasing four micro-sensors, a control chip, a radio transmitter and two silver oxide cells.

There are 2 chips in a Pill and each chip consists of sensors. There are basically 4 sensors
Chip 1 comprises of Silicon diode : Temperature sensor ISFET (Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor) sensor : pH sensor Dual electrode(Direct contact gold electrode) : conductivity sensor Chip 2 comprises of Three electrode electrochemical cell : Oxygen sensor(level of oxygen dissolved)

Sensor chip 1:
Figure (a),(c),(e) comprises of the silicon diode

temperature sensor, the pH ISFET sensors and Two electrode conductivity sensor.

Chip 1 is divided into two- LHS unit having the

diode while RHS unit comprises the ISFET(Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor)

Sensor chip 2:
Figure (b)(d)(f) comprises of three-electrode

electrochemical Oxygen sensors and a optional Nickel Chromium resistance thermometer.

ASIC:

ASIC is the control chip that connects together the external components of the micro system. An integrated circuit designed to perform a particular function by defining the interconnection of a set of basic circuit building blocks drawn from a library provided by the circuit manufacturer. ASIC contains an analog signal conditioning module operating the sensors, 10-bit ADC & DAC converters & a digital data processing module and An RC relaxation oscillator (OSC) provides the clock signal.

Its designed to operate at a transmission freq. of 40.01 MHz at 20C generating a signal of 10 kHz bandwidth. Transmitter sends the signal to the local receiver(Base station) and data will be stored in computer. The transmission range was measured as being 1 m & the modulation scheme FSK(Frequency Shift Keying), with a data rate of 1 kb/s.

The pill encloses in chemically resistant biocompatible material.

A PCB chip carrier acting as a common platform for attachment of sensors, ASIC, transmitter & batteries. The capsule was machined as two separate screw-fitting compartments. The PCB chip carrier was attached to the front section of the capsule.
The complete prototype was 16*55 mm & weighs 13.5 g including the batteries.

Temperature channel performance

pH channel performance

Pills can use in corrosive environments related to environmental & industrial applications, such as the evaluation of water quality, pollution detection, fermentation process control & inspection of the pipelines. It can be used for the Detection of tissue abnormalities & radiation treatment associated with cancer & chronic inflammation.

It has multichannel sensors so Which has been implemented in remote biomedical using micro technology. The micro electronic pills, which is designed to perform real time measurements in the GI tract providing the best in vitro wireless transmitter, multi channel recordings of analytical parameters.

Improve the performance by using advanced sensors and minimize the sensor size.