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SOLAR BOAT

Prepared by:
Muhd Nur Hakim bin Sabarudin Akmal bin Husaifuna Nor Aziah binti Mohd Abdullah

1. ABSTRACT

1.1 Objective

Our project aims to construct an environmental friendly solar boat.

1.2 Design Innovation


1.2.1 Hull: Our team decided to shape the hulls from low density polystyrene foam. By doing so, were able to reduce weight and maintain efficiency.

1.1.2 Power train:

To make the arrow shaft, we changed materials used from thin aluminum rod to a lighter plastic ink tube of a used pen. We also changed the length of the driveshaft to be as short as possible, to allow the best performance of propeller. Our boat used 2.5 inches long driveshaft to transfer power from motor to a small, twobladed propeller.

1.2.3 Power source: Solar cell of 9V/70 mA soldered in parallel circuits with a switch to control the circuit used. Overall, our boat design used only 0.63 watt power supply. (P = V x I = 9X70/1000=0.63 watt.

1.3 Maximum Speed

Speed test was conducted indoor, using 100watt bulb in a pool of 2.4m diameter. The maximum speed achieved was 0.46 m/s.

2. OBJECTIVE

The objectives of this project were:

to design and construct a boat powered by solar energy. - Our main aim is making a boat that has lowest drag in water, so that our boat can move faster. to develop creativity among students. - Through this project, we have designed different model of boats which has different speed. to increase awareness towards recycling solid waste. Due to the limited cost, we decided to use solid waste as our raw materials. For example, we used ink tube of a used pen as the driveshaft of the boat. We also used motor from a broken toy car.

3. SCIENTIFIC THEORY

Solar cells are made of two thin pieces of silicon One piece of the silicon called p-layer (because of its positive tendency) while the other one called n-layer (because of its negative tendency). when placed together, electrons flow from n-layer to p-layer and form electric field between the layer. Sun light energize the free electrons and create an electrical circuit.

4. INNOVATION

4.1. Solar Panel

solar panel was placed on the top of the hull. This will maximize the ability of solar panel to catch the suns ray.

4.2 Aerodynamic Design

Our team decided to shape the hulls from low density polystyrene foam. By doing so, we were able to reduce weight and maintain the efficiency of the boat.

Wider and more stable

Twin hulls
-keeping the boat going straight, reduce water drag Our design was based on catamaran design which has twin hulls. We found that, the design fulfills the specification of aerodynamic design in terms of: Maintaining the boat stability while floating on the water, as it has wider hull.

Keeping the boat going straight without turning around through the water. Here the separate hulls work as rudder.
reducing resistance between boat bottom with water.

4.3 Propeller Design


We use a small 2 blades propeller The spinning of 2 blades propeller will give the boat enough force to overcome water drag and allow the boat to move forward

4.4 Materials used Our team decided to shape the hulls from low density polystyrene foam. We were able to reduce weight and maintain the boat efficiency. To make the arrow shaft, we changed materials used from thin aluminum rod to a lighter plastic ink tube of a used pen. We also changed the length of the driveshaft to be as short as possible, to avoid the vibration of propeller.

A single solar cell of 9V/70mA was used. With the power supply of 0.6 watt, the cell could help us to save overall weight of the boat.

5. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION

5.1 Building the Hulls

We used a marker to draw the boat design on the foam Using a knife, the boat shape was cut out. The hulls were joined using polystyrene foam and doublesided tape.

5.2 Preparing the motor and driveshaft


INK TUBE

SLIT

First, we chose a plastic ink tube of a pen as the driveshaft. A slit was made on the middle hull in order to allow the driveshaft slide through it. the ink tube was pushed onto the driveshaft of the motor.

The other side of the ink tube must slide through the slit on the hull to get to the water before a two blades propeller attached to it. The motor was secured to the hull using binding tape.

the angle between the driveshaft and water surface was changed from approximately 30C to 20C and finally 10C.

5.3 Attaching the Solar Panel

Solar panel was placed flatly on the top middle hull of the boat. Wires were attached from the motor to the solar panel; one of the stripped wires attached to the positive lead while the other one to the negative lead. The wires were looped over themselves. The motor was secured near the slit using binding tape. The boat was tested in order to ensure that the motor spins the right way (counter-clockwise). Double checking was done in order to make sure that everything were connected tightly.

6. EXPERIMENTS

Before final selection of boat model, we have designed different models of boat and speed test was conducted to determine the fastest boat.

A
MODEL Mass / g A 61.7 B 61


1.

SPEED TEST
Different Hulls
Model A B Mass/g 61.7 61 Speed m/s 0.32 0.46 * Model B was chosen to be further tested

2. Change the angle of driveshaft


Angle /C
30

Speed/m/s
0.5376 0.5504 0.56 Speed/m/s 0.57 0.56

20 10 Propeller
small Large

3. Different propeller

Discussion

Boat with least weight move fastest. The smallest angle between driveshaft and water surface give the fastest speed. Small propeller performes highest speed.