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Introduction to International Marketing

Concept of Globalization
The process of integration and convergence of economic,
financial, cultural and political systems across the world.

Globalization: A Holistic Approach


Economic Globalization
The increasing integration of national economic systems through
growth in international trade, investment and capital flows.

Financial Globalization
The liberalization of capital movements and deregulations, especially of financial services that led to a spurt in cross-border capital flows.

Cultural Globalization
Convergence of cultures across the world.

Political Globalization
Convergence of political systems and processes around the world.

Dimensions of Economic Globalization


Globalization of production
Globalization of markets Globalization of competition Globalization of technology Globalization of corporations and industries

Movers of Globalization
Economic liberalization Technological breakthrough

Multilateral institutions
International economic integrations Move towards free marketing systems

Rising research & development costs


Global expansion of business operations Advents in logistics management Emergence of the global customer segment

Factors Restraining Globalization


Regulatory controls

Emerging trade barriers


Cultural factors

Nationalism
War and civil disturbances Management myopia

Measuring Globalization
Trade Openness KOF Index of Globalization A.T. Kearney/ Foreign Policy Globalization Index

Reasons for Support of Globalization


Maximization of Economic Efficiencies Enhancing Trade Increased Cross-border Capital Movement Improves Efficiency of Local Firms Increases Consumer Welfare

Criticism of Globalization
Developed versus Developing Countries: Unequal Players in Globalization: Widening Gap between the Rich and the Poor Wipes out Domestic Industry Leads to Unemployment and Mass Lay-offs Brings in Balance of Payments Problems Increased Volatility of Markets Diminishing Power of Nation States Loss of Cultural Identity Shift of Power to Multinationals

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Response Strategies to Globalization Forces for Emerging Market Companies

Defender Extender Dodger Contender

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Defender Strategies: where industry globalization influences are low and competitive assets are home-market-customized. Bajaj countered Hondas entry into Indian market Dodger Strategies: by firms with home-market oriented assets but under high competitive pressures; localize or JV Contender Strategies: larger, well resourced emergent firms to upgrade existing technologies and/or transfer competitive assets into foreign markets (Mexicos Cemex) Extender Strategies: use local market expertise and products to move into similar markets abroad. Jollibee