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3.

4 Homeostasis in Humans

What is homeostasis?

The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment for the optimal function of cells. Example: The metabolism of the body affected by changes in chemical factors (glucose and oxygen level) & physical factors (temperature and osmotic pressure). The regulation of the physical and chemical factors in the internal environment within tolerable limits is vital for humans to survive.

Factors Effecting Internal Environment


Internal environment

PHYSICAL FACTORS Body temperature, Blood pressure, Osmotic pressure

CHEMICAL FACTORS Salt & sugar level, Concentration of enzymes

Homeostasis in Humans

Without homeostasis, enzymatic and other metabolic processes and reactions in the body will not be able to function normally. Homeostatic regulators work on the principle of negative feedback mechanism. A system that maintains a factor within narrow limits by constantly adjusting and taking corrective action Changes in the internal environment have to be remain within a normal range. (E.g. normal body temperature 37oC)

The excretory system


The excretory system plays an important role in homeostasis. The primary organs of the excretory system are the kidneys.

The Human Kidney

a.

b. c. d.

Structure: Has an outer light-red region (renal cortex) and inner darker red brown region (renal medulla) Functions: Regulate the water and salt balance in the body by excreting more or less salt, and increasing the intake or loss of water. Regulate the osmotic pressure and ionic levels in the blood Excrete waste products Regulate the blood pH

The position of kidneys in human body

The Structure of a Kidney

The Nephron
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3.

The functional unit of kidneys. Consist of 3 major parts: Glomerulus Bowmans capsule Renal tubule made up of the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of Henle and the distal convoluted tubule

The Structure of a Nephron

The formation of urine


a)

b)
c)

To produce urine, the nephron perform 3 basic processes: Ultrafiltration Reabsorption Secretion

a) Ultrafiltration
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2.

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Blood containing urea and other waste products enter kidney via the renal arteries. Then to the Bowmans capsule which made up of 2 layers of cells that surround the glomerulus The inner wall (podocytes) and space between the 2 layers of cell (capsular space).

a) Ultrafiltration
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Podocytes and endothelium of the glomerulus form the filtration membrane that permits the passage of water and solutes from blood into the capsular space The fluid (which contain glucose, amino acid, urea, water, salt and small molecule) that enters the capsular space is called glomerular filtrate. Red blood cells and plasma protein remain in the blood and flows into the efferent arteriole.

a) Ultrafiltration

b) Reabsorption
1. 2.

The glomerular filtrate will enter the renal tubule. ..\The process of reabsorption.doc

c) Secretion
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2.

3.

A process in which waste and excess substances that were not initially filtered are secreted into the renal tubule. Occurs actively at the distal convoluted tubule through passive diffusion and active transport. Secreted substances hydrogen ions, potassium ions, ammonia, urea, creatinine, toxin and certain drugs.

3. Secretion
4. -

Purpose: Eliminate and increase water removal from the body Regulate the blood levels of certain ions. (E.g. H+ secreted more if blood pH is low)

Schematic Diagram Of The Process Of Urine Formation

Schematic Diagram Of The Process Of Urine Formation

The constituent of urine


Substance Water Chlorine (Cl-) Sodium (Na+) Bicarbonate (HCO3-) Urea Amount 1 2 litres 6.3 g 4.0 g 0.03 g 30 g

Potassium (K+ ) Uric acid


Creatinine

2.0 g 0.8 g
1.6 g

Test yourself
1. 2.

Explain in brief the formation of urine. What are the constituent of urine?

Negative Feedback Mechanism


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2.

Mechanism that regulates homeostasis (maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment). Helps to regulate: Blood glucose level Body temperature Blood osmotic pressure (salt content in the blood) Partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide

Negative Feedback Mechanism

The Role of Kidneys in Homeostasis


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The maintenance of the water in the body is by keeping the blood volume and blood osmotic pressure stable. Maintaining the water content in blood at constant level is called osmoregulation. Volume of urine production and excretion from the kidney regulates osmoregulation ADH responsible for osmoregulation.

The Role of Kidneys in Homeostasis


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6.

Osmoreceptor cells in the hypothalamus monitor the blood osmotic pressure (increase when sweating, decrease when haemorrhage or severe dehydration). ..\The regulation of blood osmotic pressure.doc

Haemodialysis and kidney transplant: life-saving therapies


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Kidney function maybe impaired by excessive blood loss, certain poisons or infectious diseases. Prolonged impairment, high blood pressure and high glucose level can also destroy nephrons kidney failure. Kidney failure cause accumulation of toxic waste in the blood death Haemodialysis machine and kidney transplant can overcome the kidney failure.

Haemodialysis and kidney transplant: life-saving therapies


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5.

Haemodialysis machine - act as an artificial kidney, operates on the principal of dialysis (separation of solute molecules based on their different diffusion rates across a semi-permeable membrane). Kidney transplant - placing the donors kidney low in the abdominal cavity, with the renal artery and vein connected to the recipients iliac artery and vein.

Kidney Transplant

Haemodialysis process
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The patients blood is drawn out, treated with an anticlotting agent (heparin) and passed across one side of a cellophane membrane. The other side of membrane containing salts so that the blood does not lose mineral salts by diffusion. Urea and other wastes diffuse out from the blood and purified blood returned to the patient.

The process of dialysis in a haemodialysis

The Regulation of Blood Sugar Level


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3.

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Normal range 75 110 mg/100 ml Regulate by islet cells in the pancreas produce hormone insulin (reduce blood glucose level) and glucagon (increase blood glucose level). Defects in the production, release and reception of insulin diabetes mellitus Over secretion of insulin hypoglycaemia

The Regulation of Blood Sugar Level


1. 2.

Defects in the production, release and reception of glucagon ____________ Over secretion of glucagon ___________

The Regulation of Blood Sugar Level

The Regulation of Body Temperature


1.

2. 3.

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Changes in body temperature is detected by thermoreceptors in the skin and in the hypothalamus. Thermoreceptors in the skin monitor the external temperature. Thermoreceptors in the hypothalamus monitor the temperature in the blood as it passes through the brain. Thermoreceptors send impulses to the thermoregulatory centre in the hypothalamus which in turn send impulses to several different effectors to either raise or reduce the body temperature.

Exercise

Do Checkpoint 3.4 on page 109 in the textbook.