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Hydraulics is the study and understanding of the behavior of liquids at rest and in motion. We are concerned with water, and we have the following four characteristics of our application:

1. How much water do we have (Pool Capacity)? 2. How fast do we want to move the water (Turnover Rate)? 3. How much resistance will this water meet while moving

through the system (Friction Loss)?

4. How will we overcome this resistance (Pump/Filter Sizing)?

Following are step by step instructions to answer these four questions, and ultimately, determine the proper size pump or filter for virtually any aftermarket installation. Each step is a calculation based on the following example: 5.00 m by 10.00 m rectangular pool, 0.90m. to 1.50m deep . With an existing 1 H.P. pump; filter gauge reads 10 P.S.I. (clean).

1. Pool Capacity
To determine total gallons, we must first calculate the surface area of the pool in square meter: A.Surface Area

Area = (A+B)x L x .45

Area = R x R x 3.1416

Area = L x W

_____________m 2
(surface area )

Surface Area: 5.00m. X 10.00m. = 50.00 m 2

Next, multiply the square meter by average depth to determine the approximate cube of the pool:

B. Average Depth ( __________m + _________ m ) 2 = __________m

(depth shallow end) (depth - deep end) (average depth)

Average Depth : (0.90m + 1.50m.) 2 = 1.20 m.

C. Cube ___________m2 + __________ m = _________ m3

(surface area) (average depth) (cube)

Cube : 50.00m.2 x 1.20m. = 60.00m3

D. Pool Capacity ________m x 264.171 gallons /m3 = ________ gallons Pool Capacity: 60.00m3 x 264.171gals = 15,850 gallons

Once the pools capacity has been calculated, the next step is to determine how fast the water must be circulated in Gallons Per Minute (GPM), to meet reasonably clean, safe water standards. The recommended minimum standards for swimming pools are not less than the flow rate to provide one (1) full turnover of the pool every twelve (12) hours . However, an eight (8) to ten (10) hour rate is quite common: A.Turnover Rate in Gallons Per Hour (GPH) ____________ gallons _________________ hours = ____________GPH
(pool capacity) (desired turnover time) (turnover rate gallons per hour)

Turnover rate : 15,850 gallons 10 hours = 1,585 gallons per hour

B.Turnover Rate in Gallons Per Minutes (GPM) ______________ gallons/ hour 60 minutes = ______________ GPM (turnover rate (turnover rate gallons per hour) gallons per minute)
Turnover rate : 1,585 gallons per hour 60 = 26 GPM

3. Friction Loss
Everything that the water must pass through within the recirculating system plumbing and equipment - creates resistance, or Head Loss. The sum of all the resistance is called Total Dynamic Head, and is measured in Feet of Head. Often, we are unable to determine the total amount of pipe and fittings in an existing installation its underground. Therefore, what follows is a simplified rule of thumb means of determining Total Dynamic Head. We will need to add the resistance from the vacuum (suction) side of the pump, see A on the next page, (measured in inches of mercury with a vacuum gauge : one (1) inch of mercury = 1.13 feet of water): to the resistance on the pressure side of pump, see B on the next page, (measured in pounds per square inch as of head ), to determine Total Dynamic Head, see C on the next page. Typically, a vacuum reading will not be available: therefore, the table below provides Common Head Loss Factors for todays high efficiency pumps.

A. Friction Loss (Vacuum) ______________ in. mercury x 1.13 ft. of water = ____________ ft. of water
(vacuum reading) (total resistance vacuum)

Or COMMON HEAD LOSS FACTORS Vacuum (At Pump) Assumes 2 suction line, not to exceed 40 long, minimal fittings, one (1) 2 valve and full rated pumps. H.P. Pump 4.5 to 5.5 ft. of water 1 H.P. Pump 7 to 9 ft. of water 1 H.P. Pump 10 to 12.5 ft. of water 2 H.P. Pump 13.5 to 16 ft. of water

Total Resistance (Vacuum): 9 ft. of water (existing 1 H.P. pump)

B. Friction Loss ( Pressure) _______________ P.S.I. X 2.31 ft. of head/ P.S.I. = ____________ft. of head
( filter- clean) (total resistance pressure)

Total Resistance (Pressure): 10 P.S.I. x 2.31 = 23 ft. of head

C. Total Dynamic Head ____________ ft. of water + __________ft. of head = ________ft. of head
(total resistance vacuum) resistance to flow) (total resistance- pressure) (total

Total Resistance to flow : 9 ft. of water + 23 ft. of head = 32 ft. of head NOTE: the table below provides a maximum flow (GPM) through 1 and 2 PVC pipe without exceeding the maximum standards for velocity (ft./ sec.), i.e., suction line (8ft./ return Suction line (10 Line ft./ sec). Pipesec.) Size and (PVC) Return Line
1 2 2 50 GPM 85 GPM 125 GPM 65 GPM 105 GPM 150 GPM

Re Cap We now have all of the information necessary to select the proper size pump and / or filter. To re cap, enter the final calculations from the previous three sections in the spaces below, which will see as our road map to sizing: Pool Capacity ___________ gallons Turnover Rate ___________ gallons per minute (GPM) Friction Loss ____________ ft. of head Pool capacity: 15,850 gallons Turnover rate: 26 GPM Friction loss: 32 ft. of head

4. A . Pump Sizing Since the one and only function of the pump is to overcome the total resistance to the flow of the system, proper selection is of utmost importance. A pumps performance data is to provide in GPM (output) vs. Feet of Head (resistance). See the table below for the specific performance data for a Hayward pumps. Performance Data Pump Pump Output (GPM) vs. Total Resistance to Flow (Feet of Head ) 20 ft. 30ft. 40ft. 50ft. 60ft. 70ft.

Model No. Max Rated

Model No. Full Rated

SP2600X5 SP2605X 7 SP2607X


55 67 85

45 58 76

29 47 65

31 50


4. B. Filtering Sizing A filter, be it D.E, sand or cartridge, has a Design Flow Rate (in Gallons Per Minute GPM), as well as Turnover Rate ( Pool Capacity in Gallons). See the table below for the specific performance data for a Hayward filters . Model Effectiv Design Number e Flow Filtratio Rate n Area Turnover (in Gallons) 8 Hours 10 Hours

S180T S210T S220T S310T

1.75 ft. 2.20 ft.

2 2

35 GPM 44 GPM 52 GPM 98 GPM

16, 800 21,120 24,960 47,040

21,000 26,400 31,200 58,800

Select S180T (minimum) to adequately filter pool(i.e. 26 VS. 35 2 GPM turnover will to 21, 000 gallons in 10 S244T rate; 3.14 ft.handle 62 pools GPM up 29,760 37,200 hours). 2

2.64 ft.2 4.91 ft.

One additional factor to consider in filter sizing is the bathers load. Busier pools require larger filters. Also, larger filters provide longer cycles, reducing the everyday maintenance required by the

Using the information in the re-cap section

above, based upon your calculations, choose the desired pump and / or filter model , then select the proper size component to meet the needs of the installation.
It is important to remember that your

Turnover Rate calculation is keyed directly to a specific Total Dynamic Head calculation (i,e ,GPM vs. Feet of Head).If you increase or decrease your GPM for any reason,your resistance will increase or decrease

The important of proper swimming pool or spa filtration cannot be overstated. The reasons for filtration,to remove insoluble matter such as dirt and algae, and to help produce clear,sparkling water are obvious. Clear water not only looks beautiful, but it is also necessary for health and safety reasons. Much of the material suspended in the water, derived from the plants and animal sources which provides food for bacteria and algae. It is these materials that must be removed if a pool or spa is to be maintained in a safe and sanitary condition. The three most popular types of filtration currently in use in residential pools and spas are HighRate Sand, Cartridge and Diatomaceous Earth (D.E.). Each method of filtration is explained below.

The oldest and most popular method of filtration is sand. Sand filters share two things in common: 1. When in the filtration mode , water always flows from top to bottom; 2. They all have some sort of lateral or underdrain with slots to hold back sand while allowing clean, filtered water to pass through. High rate sand filters use a special filter sand, normally . 45 to .55mm (also known as pool grade #20 silica sand), because it has sharp edges that serve to separate particles, allowing filtration to take place. They operate on the basis of depth filtration; dirt is driven through the sand bed and trapped in the minute spaces between the particles of sand. Initially , a clean sand bed will remove larger particles, and then, as the bed starts to load up, it will remove finer particles.

Cartridge filtration has been available for a relatively long time, but only recently has begun to enjoy rapid growth and acceptance. When water passes through a cartridge filter, dirt is screened out at the surface of the cartridge element. When clean, the element will trap larger particles, with finer particles being filtered out as the pores of the element become clogged by the larger debris. The cartridge element can be removed and cleaned by pressure washing inside and out using a garden hose.

Many pool professionals consider D.E filtration to be the finest, because it is capable of removing smaller particles than either sand or cartridge. Diatomaceous earth is a porous powder with microscopic openings,that,when magnified,looks like a tiny sponges.Clear water can pass through these openings,but particles,as small as one to three microns,are trapped the first pass through the media. All D.E. filters have internal elements that become coated with D.E powder. It is this filter cake that strains dirt, dust, algae and some forms of bacteria from the water. Similar to sand filters, when a D.E. filter becomes dirty, it is cleaned either by backwashing the

Whatever method of filtration is selected, it is important to remember that filtration alone does not keep water looking its best. Proper water chemistry must also be maintained for safe,clean water.Most pool owner complaints are directly related to water chemistry or improper sizing of filters and pumps rather than equipment failures.


Chlorine is used as disinfectant or water purifier. Chlorine level must be maintained at reasonable limits (0.6 1.0 readings) to ensure that there is sufficient amount to adequately disinfect the water, but not in excessive amounts which will irritate bathers. Apply chlorine preferably in the evening by hand broadcasting it direct into the water.

2. Ph Muriatic Acid:

Too much acid (low pH) causes irritation to the eyes and mucous membrane, algae prosper and the pool gives off an unpleasant chlorine odor. The pH readings must be between 7.2 7.6 for comfortable swimming. Apply acid one pint at a time by directly pouring it around the pool.

In short, regular chlorine dosages to maintain chlorine readings at 0.6 1.0 and pH at 7.2 7.6 is all that is required to prevent the spread of algae and thus keep the pool sanitary and attractive.

Maintenance is a matter of good housekeeping. Vacuum, clean the pool floor and brush sides thoroughly every morning. Apply chemicals in the evening and run the filter at least 4 to 6 hours daily. Thats all there is to it.

Pool Gallonage
15,000.00 20,000.00 25,000.00

Amount of Chlorine
3 4 oz. daily 4 6 oz. daily 5 7 oz. daily

Amount of Acid (pH)

3 pints or 1 qts. 5 pints or 2 qts. 6 pints or 3 qts.

30,000.00 8 pints =6 8 oz. daily 7 8 pints or 4 4 quartz = 1 gallon qts. 35,000.00 8 9 pints or 4 qts. Remember, that the above table is only a guide. Your water

7 9 oz. daily

test kit will tell you when to put chlorine acid to the 40,000.00 8 10 oz. daily or 9 10 pints or 5 pool. So always use the test-kit before adding the qts.