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PRESENTATION ON “PUBLIC

KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY”

Submitted by:-
Kratagya Chandra
0609013036
IT-1/3rd year
Contents
n Introduction
n Public-Key Cryptosystem
n RSA Cryptosystem
n Implementation
n Proof
n RSA Encryption in Practice
n Conclusion

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Introduction
n Cryptography is the art or science of
mathematical techniques related to such
aspects of data security as
n confidentiality, or keeping secret the content
of information from unauthorized parties;
n data integrity, or detecting the unauthorized
alteration of data;
n authentication, or identifying either entities or
data origins;
n non-repudiation, or preventing an entity from
denying previous commitments or actions.

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Introduction
n Cryptanalysis is the study of mathematical
methods which are used in attempting to
defeat cryptographic techniques.
n Cryptology means the study of cryptography
and cryptanalysis.

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Terminology

n Plaintext or Cleartext: The message

n Ciphertext: The encrypted message

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Terminology
n Encryption:
Encryption Encoding the contents of
the message in such a way that hides
its contents from outsiders;
n Decryption:
Decryption The process of retrieving
the plaintext from the ciphertext;
n Encryption and decryption usually
make use of a key,
key and the coding
method is such that decryption can be
performed only by knowing the
proper key.

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Cryptographic Algorithms

n There are two classes of key-


based encryption algorithms

n Symmetric (or secret-key) algorithms

n Asymmetric (or public-key) algorithms

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Symmetric Algorithms
n Same key for encryption and decryption
OR
n the decryption key is easily derived from the
encryption key

n Problem: How to distribute the key to Alice &


Bob securely
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Examples of Symmetric
Alg.
n DES, 3DES
n AES
n BlowFish
n Enigma, Purple
n Vigenere

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Asymmetric Algorithms
n Different keys for encryption and
decryption
n a public-key,
public-key which may be known by anybody,
and can be used to encrypt messages, and
verify signatures
n a private-key,
private-key known only to the recipient,
used to decrypt messages, and sign (create)
signatures

n The decryption key cannot be derived


from the encryption key

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Why a pair of keys?

n The owner of the private key can give


the public key to everyone without
fearing they could discover the
private key

n A message sent to the owner,


encrypted with the owner's public key
can be decrypted only by the owner
with the private key

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Why a pair of keys?
n A message sent from the owner
encrypted with the private key can be
decrypted by everyone with the
public key, but only the owner could
have sent it

n A message encrypted with the


sender's private key and the
recipient's public key could have
come only from the sender
(authenticity) and can be decrypted
only by the recipient (secrecy)
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How it works??
n Everybody selects its own public
key P and private key S, and
publicizes P

n Therefore Alice has (Pa , Sa), and


Bob has (Pb , Sb)

n Everybody knows Pa, Pb, …

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How it works??
n Suppose Alice wants to send a
message to Bob.
n Alice encrypts the message with
Bob’s public key Pb and sends out.
n (only) Bob can decrypt the message
using his private key Sb. Nobody
else can.

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Asymmetric Algorithms

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Properties of Public Key
Cryptosystem
n D(E(M)) = M

n Both E() and D() are easy to compute

n Publicly revealing E() does not make it


easy to determine D()

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More Properties of Public
Key Cryptosystem
n E(D(M)) = M - needed for signatures

n The collection of E()’s are made


publicly available. D()’s are
incomputable by knowing E()’s. Called
a one-way trap-door function (hard to
invert, but easy if you have the secret
information)

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Message Blocking

n Most of the PK systems require that


the input plaintext is of a fixed size.

n Messages longer than this are broken


into blocks.

n Smaller messages are padded.

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Examples of Asymmetric
Alg.
n RSA

n ElGamal

n Elliptic Curve Cipher

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History of Public-Key
Cryptosystem
n 1970 – The public-key cryptography was
proposed by James Ellis, “The possibility of
non-secret encryption”. This paper was not
published
n 1973 – Clifford Cocks’ paper “a note on
non- secret encryption”, same as RSA
n 1976 – The idea of Public Key
Cryptography was put by Diffie and
Hellman
n 1977 – Rivest, Shamir and Adleman
invented RSA Cryptosystem

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Number Theory
n Number theory is a division of
mathematics that studies the
properties of integers and all numbers
in general.

n Leads to more exotic notions of


“number”.

n Cryptography is heavily based on


number theory.
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Number Theory

n Overview of Modular Arithmetic

n The Euclidean Algorithm

n The Chinese Remainder Theorem

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RSA Cryptosystem

n Based on the idea


that it is hard to
factor large
numbers.

Tansel Zenginler 23
Implementation of RSA

n Select the public key and private key,


key generation period

n Publicize the public key

n Keep the secret key

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Implementation of RSA
n Encryption : Use public key
n Decryption : Use private key
n Signing : Use private key
n Verifying : Use public key

n Of course, from public key it is very


difficult to get the private key

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Key Generation

n Each entity creates an RSA public key


and a corresponding private key
through the following steps
n Generate two large random (and distinct)
primes p and q, each roughly the same
size
n Compute n = pq and = (p-1)(q-1)
n Select a random integer e, 1< e < such
that gcd(e) = 1.

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Key Generation

n Use the extended Euclidean Algorithm to


compute integer d such that ed 1 mod
(
n A’s public key is (n, e); A’s private key is
d

n (e, d) are called the encryption


exponent and decryption exponent
respectively. n is called the modulus

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Proof of RSA

n x is the plain text and y is the


ciphertext

n If x=0 Zn , then it is correct.

n If x Zn* , then
n 
n 

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RSA Example
n Select two primes: p = 7, q = 17
n Calculate n = pq = 7 x 17 = 119
n Calculate 
n 

n 
n 
n 
n 
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Conclusion
n The RSA algorithm is part of many
official standards worldwide.

n Technology using the RSA algorithm


is licensed by over 700 companies.

n RSA is by far the most widely used


public-key algorithm in the world.

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