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TABLE OF CONTENTS: HISTORY OF TOWN PLANNING IN LONDON CHRISTOPHER WRENS PLAN PATRICK ABERCROMBIES PLAN - WORLD WAR II AND BARLOW COMISSION - COUNTY OF LONDON PLAN - GREATER LONDON PLAN - OPEN SPACE PLAN - ROAD LAYOUT - RIVERSIDE DEVELOPMENT CURRENT SCENARIO - KEY DIAGRAM - SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT - NEIGHBOURHOODS AND COMMUNITY DWELLINGS CONCLUSION BHAIRAVI BHATIA

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SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN AND THE GREAT FIRE OF LONDON: Fields Alma Mater

Achitecture, physics, astronomy and maths.


Wadham college, University of Oxford Designer of 54 churches including St. Pauls Cathedral, as well as many secular buildings of note in London after the Great Fire

Known for

IN SEPTEMBER 1666, THE GREAT FIRE " DESTROYED 1/3RD OF BUILDINGS IN LONDON CHRISTOPHER WREN PROPOSED AN AMBITIOUS PLAN THAT WOULD REBUILD LONDON WITH WIDE STREETS RADIATING FROM A CENTRAL HUB. WREN'S PLAN FAILED, PROBABLY BECAUSE PROPERTY OWNERS WANTED TO KEEP THE SAME LAND THEY OWNED BEFORE THE FIRE. BUT WREN DID DESIGN 51 NEW CITY CHURCHES AND THE ROYAL WORKS (GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS).
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CHRISTOPHER WRENS PLAN FOR LONDON SEPTEMBER 1666

WRENS PLAN HAD MAJOR ROADS RADIATING FROM A CENTRAL SPACE. THE ENTIRE CITY OF LONDON ALONG CLASSICAL LINES, WITH BROAD TREELINED AVENUES CUTTING THROUGH THE FORMER WARREN OF TWISTING STREETS AND ALLEYS. MOSTLY THE ROADS WERE STRAIGHT WHICH WAS HIGHLY IMPRACTICAL BHAIRAVI BHATIA

WRENS PRINCIPLES: 1. "ARCHITECTURE HAS ITS POLITICAL USE; PUBLIC BUILDINGS BEING THE ORNAMENT OF A COUNTRY; 2. THE RULES OF OPTICS AND GEOMETRY SHOULD BE USED WHILE PLANNING THE CITY AND FOR ADDING VARIETY INTO IT. WRENS PLAN CONSISTS OF A SKELETON OF MAIN STREETS LINKING UP SEVERAL ROUNDS-POINTS WHIERE SECONDARY STREETS RADIATE, WHILE A GRID OF STILL NARROWER STREETS FILLS THE SPACES.' WRENS PLAN FOR LONDON WAS AN INSPIRATION FROM GARDEN OF VERSAILLES.

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THE MAPS ILLUSTRATE THE GROWTH OF POPULATION IN THE LONDON REGION FROM 1800-1958 MORE PEOPLE WITH MORE MONEY 1800

Demand for space - living, working, and recreational is very much greater than in times of poverty. Combinations of new populations and high expectations creates problems. It is particularly difficult where the amount of land is limited.
1200 1800 1600 1880

1880

1958 REF: ARCHITECTURE CITY SENSE BY THEO CROSBY

SATELL ITE TOWN 1958 BHAIRAVI BHATIA

DIAGRAM SHOWING SCALE OF ROAD PROVISION REQUIRED AND HOW MOTORWAYS DIVIDE THE CITY INTO ISLANDS INCREASED TRAFFIC

IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS

WIDEN THE STREETS DESTROYS THE EXISTING ENVIRONMENT BHAIRAVI BHATIA

REF: ARCHITECTURE CITY SENSE BY THEO CROSBY

IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEMS

REF: DESIGN IN TOWN AND VILLAGE

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Wartime and Post-War British Planning: Abercrombie


Patrick Abercrombie The Barlow Commission

and World War II


The Plan for Greater London and Britains New

Towns Program
Read more: Sir Patrick Abercrombie Infoplease.com http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A080 2133.html#ixzz0wIIXBm00

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The bright red indicates the areas of London that contained industry at this point in 1943. There is a significant amount of red concentrated around the Thames before the war there was still much heavy industry concentrated around the East End.
PLAN SHOWING CONCENTRATION OF INDUSTRIES IN LONDON

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CAREER AN ARCHITECT THEN PROFESSOR OF CIVIC DESIGN AT LIVERPOOL UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE IN 1915, LATER PROFESSOR OF TOWN PLANNING AT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON. WORKS DESIGNS FOR DUBLINCITY CENTRE REPLANNING OF PLYMOUTH, HULL, BATH, EDINBURG AND BOURNEMOUTH. INVOLVED IN FOUNDING OF THE COUNCIL FOR THE PRESERVATION OF RURAL ENGLAND (CPRE). BEST KNOWN FOR THE POST SECOND WORLD WAR REPLANNING OF LONDON. CREATED COUNTY OF LONDON PLAN (1943) AND GREATER LONDON PLAN (1944) PUBLISHED A PLAN FOR THE CITY & COUNTY OF KINGSTON UPON HULL (1945), WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF SIR EDWYN LUTENS. FROM THE ABERCROMBIE PLAN , CAME THE NEW TOWN MOVEMENT.

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ACHIEVEMENTS IN EUROPE ENGLISH NEW TOWN MOVEMENT Sir Anthony Barlow headed commission The Report of Royal Commission of Distribution of Industrial Population (1940) -- Sir Patrick Abercrombie and J.H. Forshaw The County of London Plan (1943) -- New Towns Plan of Hook; Plan of Cumbernauld OTHER DEVELOPMENTS Londons Barbican area -- Garden cities in France -- Dourges 1st garden city in France (1919) -- Longueau, Tergnier, Lille-le-Deliverance -- Berlin, Germany Martin Machler -- Baku in Russia -- West Kungsholmen, Stockholm -- Tapiola, Helsinki in Finland -- Amsterdam South, Amsterdam in Holland -- Other countries Italy, Switzerland, Israel
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GREATER LONDON MODEL

Professor Patrick Abercrombie (1879-1957) was a trained architect and town planner. He prepared the 'COUNTY OF LONDON PLAN' (1943) AND THE GREATER LONDON PLAN (1944) during the Second World War as a blueprint for London's post-war reconstruction and development.
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Land used for allotments during the war and bombdamaged areas presented a post-war opportunity for a network of open spaces that Abercrombie hoped would contribute to the improvement of people's health and wellbeing.
EVERY THOUSAND PERSONS
POPULATION OPEN SPACE

4 ACRES OPEN LAND

He established 'Standards of Open Space' which recommended that, for every thousand city inhabitants, there should be at least four acres of open space available.
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ABERCROMBIES CONCEPT Controlled growth was for Abercrombie the SPIDER-WEB TYPE of development, It combined features of SPONTANEOUS RIBBON DEVELOPMENT, growing like tentacles from a common nucleus, and from GRID PLAN It symbolised the MUTUAL ADJUSTMENT of nature and culture, man and environment.

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COUNTY OF LONDON PLAN

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COUNTY OF LONDON PLAN 1945 CITY OF VILLAGES

The County of London Plan was prepared for the LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL by J.H.FORSHAW and PATRICK ABERCROMBIE in 1943. Its main purpose was to point out the main directions of development and reconstruction of LONDON. It was prepared in anticipation of the end of WORLD WAR II.
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THE COUNTY OF LONDON PLAN, 1943 The London County Council tasked JH Forshaw, its resident architect, and Patrick Abercrombie with drawing up a comprehensive plan for the old County of London. They identified London's FOUR "MAJOR DEFECTS" as - Traffic congestion, - Depressed housing, - Inadequacy and mal-distribution of open spaces, and - The jumble of houses and industry ("indeterminate zoning").

Major problem

TRAFFIC CONGESTION

Results

NEW PARKLAND FROM SLUM CLEARANCE EXTENSIVE REZONING OF LAND USES

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The road plan had three classifications of road:


CLASSIFICATION OF ROADS

ARTERIAL Without any frontages or access to side streets

SUB-ARTERIAL Main roads to builtup areas with frontages

LOCAL ROADS This covered all other roads

FEATURES OF THIS CLASSIFICATION -All through traffic onto arterial roads, - Travelling long distances by local roads not possible, as they would be effectively blocked off from through traffic. - Areas within the grid would be as self-contained as possible, to reduce the demand for travel. - This led to invention of system of RING ROADS. BHAIRAVI

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The B-Ring, the principal ring road around central London, built for fast traffic. It was to be fully gradeseparated There were three grades. -SURFACE LEVEL ROAD - HIGH LEVEL ROAD - LOW LEVEL ROAD

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THE A-RING, LINKED THE MAJOR RAILWAY TERMINI, AND FORMED "THE BOUNDARY OF THE EMPIRE, CULTURAL AND COMMERCIAL CORE OF LONDON. THE C-RING, OTHER RADIALS AND SOME CONNECTING ROADS. THE D-RING, AN EXPRESS-ARTERIAL, AND ALMOST ENTIRELY A NEW ROUTE. THIS WAS INTENDED TO "GIRDLE THE GENERAL LIMITS OF THE BUILT-UP AREA IN LONDON", IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE GREEN BELT. THE E-RING, ANOTHER SUB-ARTERIAL, WOULD BE A PARKWAY, WITH FREQUENT LAYBYS AND PICNIC AREAS. THE E-RING DID NOT JOIN UP ACROSS THE THAMES.

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EXPRESS ARTERIAL ROUTES Abercrombie's proposals for motorway-style routes were as follows: The Plan detailed three styles of grade-separated junction: the two-level roundabout interchange; the three-level roundabout interchange the cloverleaf. Abercrombie was careful to note that he had modified the latter to turn the four round loops into triangular roadways with sharp corners,

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THE ABERCROMBIE PLAN 1. RECONSTRUCTION INNER LONDON OF

2. THE NEW TOWNS CREATED BEYOND THE GREEN BELT CONCENTRIC RING THEORY SUB-URBS/ SATELLITE TOWNS C.B.D.

RESIDENCES

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The Greater London Plan, 1944

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THE RIVERSIDE WALK IS VERY DIVERSE. IT LEAVES THE RIVER FOR SHORT SECTIONS . THEY LINK ORIGINS TO DESTINATIONS . THE WALKWAY IS A GREAT LANDSCAPE PLANNING ACHIEVEMENT

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OPEN SPACE PLAN 1944 ABERCROMBIE PARK SYSTEM. BOMBS DROPPED ON LONDON Adequate open space for both recreation and rest is a vital factor in maintaining and improving the health of the people, begins the Abercrombie Plan. Its at once a visionary plan, in that it creates a coordinated Park System. The idea was to create a web of open space leading from the city centre, through green corridors, greenways and green wedges to a green belt on the periphery of London. Beyond the Green Belt, Abercrombie proposed the layout of New Towns. file:///I:/london/A%20Biography%20of%20Patrick%20 Abercrombie.mht#ixzz0y08XUs2u BHAIRAVI BHATIA

Abercrombie proposed a standard of open space of 1.62 hectares (or four acres) per 1000 people. These spaces need to be considered as a whole, and co-ordinated into a closely-linked park system, with parkways along existing and new roads forming the links between larger parks. The goal was that city-dwellers could get from their doorstep to open country through an easy flow of open space from garden to park, from park to parkway, from parkway to green wedge and from green wedge to green belt. Abercrombie identified seven categories of parkways : 1. linear strips of open space; OPEN SPACE 2. riverside walks; EVERY 3. footpaths through farmland; 4 ACRES THOUSAND OPEN LAND PERSONS 4. bridle tracks and green lanes; 5. bicycle tracks; POPULATION 6. motor parkways; and 7. express arterial roads. In the plan, a Green Belt Ring of about 8 kilometres deep would be used for recreational purposes, with a mainly agricultural Outer Country Ring. In both rings, no new building would be allowed and an extensive system of radial and connecting footpaths was to be created. BHAIRAVI BHATIA

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COMMUNITIES, NEIGHBOURHOODS AND THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

Creating mechanisms to ensure that development and services meet local peoples needs, and that people are empowered to take their own decisions at the neighbourhood level, will be vital to creating vibrant neighbourhoods and a sense of community.

Design in town and village

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The methods adopted to form spaces with small houses: 1. Make recessions in the street length 2. group the buildings around road intersections 3. design short length of street as a space culdesac 4. form spaces or closes independent of road system All the methods depend upon the visual perceptions

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A SKETCH DIAGRAM SHOWING THE PROBABLE GROWTH OF SATELLITE TOWNS AROUND LONDON. THESE INCLUDED STEVENAGE, HARLOW, CRAWLEY AND HAROLD HILL.

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MAP 5A.1 LONDONS SUB-REGIONS

Outer London, Inner London and Central Activities Zone

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MAP 1.1 POPULATION GROWTH 1991 - 2003

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MAP 1.2 JOBS GROWTH 1991 - 2003

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FIGURE 1.1 LONDONS POPULATION CHANGE: ACTUAL AND PROJECTED 1971 - 2026

Sources: Estimates: 1939 National Registration; 1951 Census; 19612001 ONS Mid-year Estimates. Projections: GLA DMAG 2005 Round Projections 2002-2026. BHAIRAVI BHATIA

MAP 2A. 1 OPPORTUNITY AREAS

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MAP 2A.3 ACCESS TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT

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MAP 3C.1 PROPOSED MAJOR RAIL TRANSPORT SCHEMES AND DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES IN LONDON

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MAP 3C.2 PROPOSED LIGHT TRANSIT SCHEMES IN LONDON

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MAP 3C.3 PROPOSED RIVER CROSSING SCHEMES

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MAP 3D.1 LONDONS NETWORK OF TOWN CENTRES

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MAP 3D.4 SITES OF METROPOLITAN IMPORTANCE FOR NATURE CONSERVATION AND AREAS OF DEFICIENCY IN ACCESS TO NATURE IN LONDON

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NEW MAP 3D.5 IMPORTANT SITES OF GEOLOGICAL INTEREST IN LONDON

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NEW MAP 4A.1I SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BROAD LOCATIONS SUITABLE FOR RECYCLING AND WASTE TREATMENT FACILITIES

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The Blue Ribbon Plan, or London Rivers Open Space Plan, was the first significant statement on Open Space Planning in the Twenty First Century by the Greater London Authority.

The Blue Ribbon Plan is one component of what should be a large-scale plan for London's Green Infrastructure. As Abercrombie proposed in 1943-4, the Green Infrastructure should extend from Central London into the Green Belt and the surrounding countryside. If, as must be expected, London continues to grow, then the Rural Green Infrastructure will become Urban Green Infrastructure.
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IMPROVING CONDITIONS FOR CYCLING IN LONDON IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH QUALITY, DIRECT, CYCLING ROUTES, WHERE POSSIBLE SEGREGATED FROM MOTORISED TRAFFIC, GIVING ACCESS TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT NODES, TOWN CENTRES AND KEY LAND USES ROUTES ARE SEGREGATED FROM PEDESTRIANS AS FAR AS PRACTICABLE, BUT ARE NOT ISOLATED THE USE OF SUSTAINABLE URBAN DRAINAGE SYSTEMS ARE PROMOTED FOR DEVELOPMENT . THE PLAN TAKES THE YEAR 2025/26 AS ITS FORMAL END DATE BECAUSE A LONG TERM VIEW OF LONDONS FUTURE IS NEEDED..

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CONCLUSION
PATRICK ABERCROMBIE WAS A GREAT VISIONARY. HE FOLLOWED SURVEY-BASED PLANNING PHILOSOPHY HE IDENTIFIED THE PROBLEMS BEFORE PLANNING. ESTABLISHED A BALANCE BETWEEN THE COMPETING DEMANDS OF ARCHITECTURE AND LANDSCAPE. HE BELIEVED IN THE CONCENTRIC SECTOR THEORY ALONGWITH THE PROVISION OF SATELLITE TOWNS FOR A CITYS EXPANSION. HE CHAMPIONED THE IDEA OF A GREEN BELT AROUND LONDON. PROVIDING LINKING PARKWAYS HE EXTENDED THE RADIUS OF INFLUENCE OF THE LARGER OPEN SPACES HE BROUGHT THE OPEN SPACES INTO MORE INTIMATE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE SURROUNDING AREAS. HE DESIGNED FOR THE MOTOR AGE TRYING TO REDUCE THE TRAFFIC CONGESTIONS. A CITY WITH DIVERSE SUBURBAN ENVIRONMENTS THAT OFFER MANY PEOPLE A HIGH QUALITY OF LIFE. THE FUTURE SCALE AND PHASING OF DEVELOPMENT SHOULD BE INTEGRATED WITH THE CAPACITY OF THE PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM AND ACCESSIBILITY OF DIFFERENT LOCATIONS. MAINTAINED HEIRARCHY OF ROADS. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AS LESS NEED TO TRAVEL FROM HOME BHAIRAVI BHATIA TO WORK

OPEN SPACES, RIVERS AND OTHER WATER FEATURES SHOULD BE PROTECTED AND ENHANCED SO THAT GROWTH CAN BENEFIT THE CITYS BREATHING SPACES. EQUALLY THE QUALITY OF BUILT ENVIRONMENT IS ENHANCED, SO THAT A MORE DYNAMIC AND ACTIVE CITY CAN ALSO ENJOY MORE ATTRACTIVE SURROUNDINGS. LONDON HAS GROWN AS A RELATIVELY LOW DENSITY, OPEN CITY COMPARED TO OTHER WORLD CITIES . LONDON HAS A WELL-ESTABLISHED PATTERN OF CENTRES VARYING IN SIZE LEADING IT TO BEING POLY-CENTRIC . THIS HELPS TO DISTRIBUTE THE POPULATION RATHER THAN CONCENTRATION AND CONGESTION. TWO-THIRDS OF ITS LAND AREA AND THE MAJORITY OF ITS POPULATION AND WORKFORCE ARE IN THE SUBURBS. IT HAS AN ATTRACTIVE NETWORK OF OPEN AND WATER SPACES. IT ACCOMMODATES GROWTH WITHIN ITS BOUNDARIES WITHOUT ENCROACHING ON OPEN SPACES. IT IS A WELL-DESIGNED AND GREEN CITY. LONDON PLAN ESTABLISHES A HIERARCHY OF OPEN SPACES OF DIFFERENT SIZE WITH GREEN CHAINS TO PROMOTE BIODIVERSITY

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