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FREE SPACE OPTICAL COMMUNICATION

(FSO)

Submitted By : Branch : Roll no :

Shantanu Praksah Naik ECE( 3rd year) CSJMA10001390102

PRESENTATION OVERVIEW

Introduction to FSO ? Why FSO Today ? Free-space optics subsystems Working of FSO Basic Architectures Free Space Optics Applications Challenges Eye Safety FSO Advantages

INTRODUCTION to FSO

FSO is a line of sight technology that uses devices

such as LASERS to establish connectivity for video and voice communication Currently, It can allow upto 2.5 Gbps of data rate but can be increased to 10 Gbps using WDM FSO is based on connectivity between two stations consisting of optical transceiver to achieve full duplex communication

Why FSO Today Why Not Just Bury More Fiber?


No Trenching as in laying fiber optics
Less Installation Time Low Cost

High data rates, up to 2.5Gbps at present and 10 Gbps in the near future. Requires no RF spectrum licensing.

FREE-SPACE OPTICS SUBSYSTEMS

How FSO Works


1 Network traffic converted into 2 Transmitter projects the

pulses of invisible light representing 1s and 0s

carefully aimed light pulses into the air

Reverse direction data transported the same way. FULL DUPLEX

A receiver at the other end of the link collects the light using lenses and/or mirrors

Received signal converted back into fiber or copper and connected to the network

Basic Architectures
1. POINT TO POINT ARCHITECTURE
In this architecture two places connected using FSO technology are

2. MESH ARCHITECTURE
Composed of a series of interconnected nodes

3. POINT-TO-MULTIPOINT ARCHITECTURE A single node serves as an originator and multiple links emanate from it.

4. MULTIPLE PTP ARCHITECTURE Suitable to create an extensive link path between distant buildings

FSO CORE APPLICATIONS


METRO NETWORK EXTENSIONS FSO can be deployed to extend an existing metro ring or to connect new networks ENTERPRISE CONNECTIVITY The flexibility of FSO allows it to be deployed in many enterprise applications FIBER COMPLEMENT FSO may also be deployed as a redundant link to back-up fiber
DWDM SERVICES Independent players aiming to build their own fiber rings may use FSO to complete part of the ring

CHALLENGES IN WORKING
Fog Building Motion Scintillation Range Window Attenuation

Sunlight

Alignment

Obstructions
Low Clouds

Each of these factors can attenuate (reduce) the signal. However, there are ways to mitigate each environmental factor.

Challenges

Atmospheric Attenuation - FOG


Absorption or scattering of optical signals due to airborne particles Primarily FOG but can be rain, snow, smoke, dust, etc. Can result in a complete outage FSO wavelengths and fog droplets are close to equal in size (Mie Scattering)

Typical FSO systems work 2-3X further than the human eye can see
High availability deployments require short links that can operate in the fog

Challenges

SCINTILLATION
Scintillation is the spatial variation in light intensity caused by atmospheric turbulence

Beam spreading and wandering due to propagation through air pockets of varying temperature, density, and index of refraction.
Almost mutually exclusive with fog attenuation. Results in increased error rate but not complete outage.

Challenges

Building Motion
Type Cause(s) Magnitude Frequency

Tip/tilt
Sway

Thermal expansion
Wind

High
Medium

Once per day


Once every several seconds Many times per second

Vibration

Equipment (e.g., HVAC), door slamming, etc.

Low

Challenges

Building Motion Thermal Expansion


Results from Seattle Deployment: 15% of buildings move more than 4 mrad 5% of buildings move more than 6 mrad 1% of buildings move more than 10 mrad

Challenges

Compensating for Building Motion Two Methods


1. Automatic Pointing and Tracking

Allows narrow divergence beams for greater link margin System is always optimally aligned for maximum link margin Additional cost and complexity

0.2 1 mrad divergence = 0.2 to 1 meter spread at 1 km

1. Large Divergence and Field of View

Beam spread is larger than expected building motion Reduces link margin due to reduced energy density Low cost
2 10 mrad divergence =2 to 10 meter spread at 1 km

EYE SAFETY AND FREE SPACE OPTICS


Laser beams with wavelengths in the range of 400 to 1400 nm emit light that passes through the cornea and lens and is focused onto a tiny spot on the retina (NOT SAFE) wavelengths above 1400 nm are absorbed by the cornea and lens, and do not focus onto the retina(SAFE) Any FSO system can be designed eye safe independent of the wavelength used

FREE SPACE OPTICS (FSO) ADVANTAGES


Requires no RF spectrum licensing. Is immune to radio frequency interference or saturation. Very secure due to high directionality and beams Zero chances of network failure. Full Duplex Operation Can be deployed behind windows, eliminating the costly rooftop rights need for narrow ness of

CONCLUSION
FSO network can be rapidly deployed to provide

immediate service to the customers. Though not


very popular at the moment FSO has a tremendous scope for deployment. FSO adds the wireless feature to OFC and thus provide a boon in the field of high bandwidth requirements.

REFERENCES
[1] Willebrand, S. Ghuman Baksheesh. Free Space Optics : Enabling Optical Connectivity in Todays Networks Publisher Sams Publishing Clark Gerald R. Free Space Optics : Extending the Metro Optical Networks. Publisher : LightPointe.
http://www.wikipedia.org

[2]
[3]

[4]

http://www.lightpointe.com

THANK YOU