Sei sulla pagina 1di 45

Seed production in Cabbage

Presented to: Dr. P. J. Devaraju Assoc. Professor Dept. of Seed Sci. & Tech.

By: Lohith. L. S. PAL 0253 Dept. of seed Sci. & Tech

Introduction
Cabbage is one of the most economically important members of genus Brassica. It is the most popular vegetable around the world in respect of area, production and availability, almost round the year. In India it ranks 2nd next to cauliflower in area and production.

Globally, China ranks first followed by India in area and production.

Botanical discription
Family: Cruciferae Genus: Brassica Species: oleracea Botanical variety: Capitata Chromosome number: 2n =18

Uses
Cabbage is commonly used fresh as salad, cole-slaw, boiled vegetable cocked in curries and processed.

Cabbage is known to possess medicinal properties and used against gout, diarrhoea and stomach troubles.
Cabbage has an anti-cancer property due to the presence of indole -3-carbinol. The leaves are used to cure ulcers and wounds.

Sauerkrant (shredded leaves fermented under pressure) has a curtive effect on scurvy disease. Cabbage is rich in mineral and vitamins A,B and C.

Nutritional constituents of cabbage(per 100g)


Water (%) 92

Energy (cal) Protein (g) Fat (g) Carbohydrate (g)

24 1.3 0.2 5.4

Area and production (India)


Year Area (lac.ha) Total vegetable area (%) Production (in 000Mt) Total vegetable production (%)

2008-09

3.1

3.9

6870

5.3

Area and production (Karnataka)


Year 2005-06 Area (ha) 6917 Production (t) 131297 Productivity (t/ha) 19 Source: NHB, indiastat.com

Origin
Cabbage evolved in Germany (Helm, 1963). Cabbage was one of the earliest cultivated form of cole crops.

The first recorded evidence of organized seed production of cabbage is in the early forties when the experiments were conducted at Quetta in Baluchistan and later in Kashmir valley and HP (Seshadri and Chatterjee, 1983).

Botany
Cabbage is a herbaceous annual for vegetable purpose and biennial for seed production. The first three leaves have a petiole whereas later leaves are completely sessile. The leaves are coated with a layer of wax.

FLORAL BIOLOGY
The flowers are borne in terminal racemes, which develop on the main stem and all its branches. The bright yellow hypogynous flowers borne on slender pedicels are perfect, with four sepals, four petals, six stamens. Anthesis: 8-10 am. Stigma receptivity begins 2-3 days before anthesis.
Nature Highly cross pollinated Agent Bees (cuckoobee, honeybee, bumblebee), Diptera, Blow fly Condition fav. CP Protogynic condition, self sterility Seed set inc. (%) 14-22

PACKAGE OF PRACTICE

Crop

Type Early

Time of sowing
July - Aug

NUTRIENT (Kgs ha-1)

Location Hills

N 125

P 75

K 60

Seed Spacing rate (g)


6030
or

Avg yld (kg ha-1)


500-600

500-675

Cabbage Late Oct - Nov Plains

4545 600-700 6060

Bolting
Bolting is where the plant puts on a sudden spurt of growth too quickly and uses up all its energy, then flowers and seeds. It will stop growing as it has completed its life cycle.

Why does bolting occur?


Flowering plants like cabbage, lettuce or spinach have a photoreceptor protein which is sensitive to seasonal changes or hours of darkness. These long day plants require fewer number of hours darkness within a day to set flower. A cold spell of weather can also assist with bolting. Contd .

With the increase of temperature in February the heads start building out as a result of internal pressure.
At this state cuts of 2.5 to 5.0 cm deep at right angles are given across the heads for easy emergence of the flower stalks. As soon as the heads burst and growing tip comes out, bolting is said to have taken place and continues till flowering.

Lower temperatures within the favorable range of 4.4 to 60C. For vernalization stimulate the plant to bolt quickly and produce flowers in abundance.

Seed production
For seed multiplication of cabbage following 3 methods (Singh et al., 1959) can be followed depending on the suitability, type of the seed and stage of multiplication.

1. Seed-to-seed method 2. Head-to-seed method 3. Late planting

Seed-to-seed( Insitu) method


It is commonly used for foundation and certified seed production Plants are allowed to grow, over winter and produce seed in their original position. Where they were first planted as seedling This method is again divided into three sub methods. 1. Head intact method 2. Stump method 3. Stump method with central core intact

Head intact method


This is the most common method in commercial seed production of cabbage. The plants are allowed to over winter at the place of original planting as seedling. Head formation is completed by mid December With the rise in temperature in the first fortnight of march the developing flower stalk exerts an internal pressure and the starts bursting. Two vertical cuts are made in the heads as soon as they start producing dome shaped appearance to facilitate the flower stalk to emerge easily Care is to be taken not to injure the central growing point

Stump method
The fully matured heads are decapitated just below the base with sharp knife keeping the stem with outer whorls of leaves intact. The stumps thus left will develop throw flowering shoots from the axillary buds during spring. Merits: 1. Extra income from the sale of heads. 2. Seed yield is more than head-intact method. 3. Flowering and maturity is advanced by about 14 days. Demerits: 1. Flowering shoots arising from the stumps are decumbent. 2. Rotting of stems from the cut ends after a frost or snow fall.

Stump method with central core intact


Instead of removing the whole heads they are chopped off on all sides with downward perpendicular cuts in such a way that central core is not damaged. The flowering shoots arise from the terminal and axillary buds. Merits 1. Higher yield than the stump method. 2. The flowering branches are not decumbent. 3. Early seed maturity. Demerits 1. The cut portions of heads are unmarketable. 2. Require additional labour.

Head-to-seed method
This method is mostly fallowed for nucleus seed production. True to type compact heads are selected, uprooted and replanted in a separate plot during Nov-Dec. Before replanting, the outer leaves are removed and plants are set in the field in such a way that the whole stem below the head is buried in the ground with the head resting just above the surface of the soil.

Late planting
This method is a modification of Insitu method It is only fallowed in early types which when planted late will bolt directly in spring after over wintering in the field without forming any topical heads. In this method, seed yield is very high but the quality of seed may not be up to the prescribed standard.

Hybrid seed production


Exploitation of heterosis in cabbage was done as early in 1951 with release of first practical hybrid Nagaoka Kohai No.1 in Japan. In developed countries almost 90% of cabbage growing area is now under hybrids while in India it is only 31.39% (Sharma, 2000).

F1 hybrids have various advantages such as increased earliness, winter hardiness uniform maturity and better productivity.

Methods of hybrid seed production


Cabbage is a cross pollinated crop. It is mainly due to prevalence of genetic mechanism like self-incompatibility. However, male sterility has also been observed in this crop.

Self-incompatibility
This natural mechanism avoids the tedious job of doing emasculation. sporophytic SI is the operating system in Brassica and has been used effectively in cabbage for production of F1 hybrid seed through single, double or triple crosses.

It is controlled by one locus with 50 multiple alleles. Utilization of this system involves selection of parents, development of homozygous SI lines and commercial production of Hybrid seed.

Production of hybrid seed


After developing the homozygous SI lines by inbreeding single, double and triple cross hybrids are produced in cabbage depending upon the vigour of the SI lines. The single cross F1 hybrids involves cross between two SI lines with different S alleles ' S1 and S2 ' planted in alternate rows. Seeds from the parents are harvested. However seed produced by both the lines are identical except the maternally inherited traits. In double cross hybrids 4 homozygous SI inbreed lines are used. And in triple cross hybrids 6 inbreed lines are used. S1S2 x S2S2 S4S4 x S5S5 S1S1 x S3S3 S4S5 x S6S6 S1S3 x S2S3 S4S6 x S5S6

Physiological Disorder (Harza and Som, 1999)


Disorder Deficiency Symptoms Control

Browning

Boron

Browning of the stem along Soil application of Borax with thickening and @ 10-15 ka/ha. brittleness of leaves Hallow stem, water areas and stunted (Edward Raja, 1999)

Whip tail

Molybdenum

Distortion of growing point Rise the soil pH up to along with reduction of leaf 6.5 by liming 1.5 ka Na or ammonium molybdate / area. ha. Spraying of 0.1% ammonium molybdate.

Seed Yield
Early varieties:500-600kg/ha Late Varieties: 600-700kg/ha

Varieties Golden Acre Pusa Drum Head

Seed yield(kg/ha) 364.630 237.790 1:353 1:125

SMR

Verma & Chaurasia, 1994

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 60x75 75x75 100x75 seed yield (kg/ha)

Spacing (cm)

Effect of plant population on seed yield of cabbage.


-Ahmed and Kumar (1995)

Effect of different treatment combinations on plant height and yield of cauliflower


Treatments plant height (cm) 45 DAT T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 43.3 49.15 43.73 46.94 52.29 52.47 75 DAT 51.34 52.29 46.13 49.9 54.97 55.98 0.7 0.793 0.936 0.956 0.957 0.973 271.5 305.43 346.56 286.16 330.59 359.76 net weight of curd(kg) net curd yield9q/ha)

T7
T8 T9 C.D.(P=0.05)

53.16
50.23 49.77 0.358

55.99
54.37 o.968 52.78 0.048

0.98

385.11
376.82

0.958 0.038

337.04 7.887

Sanjay kumar et al., 2011 Application of PSB +RDF(120:60:60 kg/ha) NPK was proved best for higher curd yield . It means treatment 7 is the best.

Effect of various treatments on number of leaves , days to harvesting and yield parameters in cabbage
Treatments No of leaves /plant
1.5 18.3 19

days to harvesting

avg avg avg weight of weight of yield(q/ha) leaves(g) head(g)


621.66 720 786.66 720 940 961 270.43 487.93 497.93

T1 T2 T3

90.13 85.56 83.46

T4
T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 SE

16.1
19.6 17.7 17.5 16.7 17.5 12.7 1.1

71.13
69 80.53 79.13 75.53 73.4 94.93 5.41

683.33
809.33 593.33 678.33 633 783 428.33 72.72

840.66
970.33 759.33 766.66 820 815.33 420 97.63

443.23
513.23 382.73 425.06 432.1 491.47 211.7 16.47

V.S. Supe 2008

The treatment 5 recorded the highest yield 513.23 q/ha to the rest of treatments .the results indicated that the application of higher dose of NPK or combination of inorganic fertilizers with organic manures were found to be beneficial.

Effect of head weight on seed yield and its components


Head Weight (g) 201-500 501-800 801-1100 Days to 50% flowering 66.67 67.33 68.33 No. of branches/plant 12.67 17.93 19.80 Seed yield/plant (g) 26.21 26.61 27.96

1101-1400
1401-1700 1701-2000 CD at 5%

63.00
65.33 65.00 2.61

19.67
18.00 17.93 5.50

30.56
31.89 29.56 NS

(Pathania and Negi., 1993)

Yield components of cabbage at the different levels of decomposed poultry manure


Treatments Mean head length (cm) Mean head width (cm) Mean weight of nonwrapper leaves (g) 10.2 10.5 11.3 11.6 10.7 Mean head weight per plant (kg) Yield (t/ha)

0 t/ha 10 t/ha 20 t/ha 30 t/ha 40 t/ha

7.7 10.4 10.6 11.8 9.7

8.6 11.2 11.8 12.9 11.7

0.64 0.95 0.97 1.30 0.86

24.3 29.4 30.3 35.6 31.4

Means
LSD0.05 CV(%)

10.0
2.4 9.46

11.2
3.7 6.32

10.9
NS 9.34

0.94
0.2 13.41 Ijoyah et al., 2009

30.2
3.7 6.69

Application of 30 t/ha of decomposed poultry manure is recommended. This application is associated with higher head length, head width, weight of non- wrapper leaves, head weight per plant and yield respectively.

RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT SOWING DATES ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF CAULIFLOWER


Treatment Fresh weight (kg/plant) Head weight (kg/plant) Head diameter (cm) 15.19 a 13.86 ab No. of marketable heads/plot 26.00 a 27.00 a Yield (T ha -1)

1st June 16 th June

2.23 ab 2.60 a

1.13 a 1.38 a

30.28 ab 37.83 a

1st July 16 th July


31 st July LSD (0.05)

1.80 bc 1.25 cd
0.86 d 0.71

0.65 b 0.59 b
0.28 c 0.30

11.92 bc 10.13 c
5.50 d 2.54

24.60 a 21.00 b
12.00 c 2.41

15.80 bc 20.99 b
3.25 c 14.83

Muhammad Din et al., 2007

Maximum number of marketable heads (plot -1), head diameter (cm) head weight (kg plant -1) and Yield (T ha -1) were produced when the cauliflower was planted on 1 st and 16 th June .

Effect of different Spacing on growth and yield of knol khol


Treatm Plant ents height (em) No. of Leaf leaves/ length plant (em) Leaf width (em) cercom fere nce of knob (em)
22.86 23.00

Horizo ntal length of knob(e m)


6.81 6.36

Vertica l length knob (em)

Net knob weight (g)

Yield tlha

25*25 30*25

37.09 35.06

13.21 12.65

18.02 18.98

9.70 10.26

5.83 5.83

189.93 185.78

27.39 24.77

30*30
Sem. CD at 5%

35.96
0.69 NS

12.87
0.20 NS

18.98
0.32 NS

10.56
0.17 0.48

23.17'
0,31 NS

6.62
0.10 0.29

5.91
0.13 NS

196.96
4.81 NS

21.89
0.60 1.74

Dongra 2003 The plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, circumference of knob, vertical length of knob and net weight of knob did not differ significantly due to different spacing except leaf width, horizontal length of knob and yield. Leaf width increased with increasing the levels of spacing, wider spacing recorded higher leaf width than closer spacing.

Effect of integrated nutrient management on morphological and yield contributing parameters of Broccoli Treatment Curd Numb Curd Weight Yield Ra diamet er of weig of lateral /plot nk er lateral ht shoots(g (kg) (cm2) shoots (g) ) RDF (N:P:K=100:60:60) 11.0 6.1 140 550.0 300.0 VI

FYM at 20 t/ha
FYM at 10 t/ha+NPK (50:60:60) Neem Cake at 5 t/ha Vermicompost at 5 t/ha

11.5
10.50 10.50 10.5

7.0
7.1 5.5 5.5

136
142 150 141

450.0
530.0 560.0 625.0

340.5 II
295.5 VI 205. VIII 298.5 V

Neem Cake at 2.5 t/ha+ NPK (50:60:60)


Vermicompost at 2.5 t/ha+ NPK (50:60:60) Poultry manure at 5 t/ha Poultry manure at 2.5 t/ha+ NPK (50:60:60)

10.75
10 11.05 10.50

6.0
6.0 6.0 5.5

150
140 146 130

525.0
600.0 580.0 500.0

320.0 IV
345.0 321.0 I III

275.5 VII

CD (5%)

3.0

1.1

5.2

19.0

5.2

Jag Paul Sharma et al., 2012 Higher yield treatment of Vermicompost at 2.5 t/ha+1/2 NPK (chemical fertilizers) would be most suitable as it resulted in maximum yield/ plot, which was statically higher than all the treatments except FYM at 20 t/ha.

Effect of time of sowing on yield of Broccoli


Time of sow- ing No. of leaves /plant
19.8 20.0

Days to first harvest


90.4 83.1

Lengt h of DiameSingle head (cm) ter of head wt. head (cm) (g)
22.6 15.8 22.9 18.8 638 478

Main head yield (t/ha)


16.7 15.0

Lateral head yield (t/ha)


4.7 2.5

1 Oct. 15 Oct. 30 Oct.

19.4

80.2

16.7

16.2

347

12.2

1.3

CV(%) .
LSD (0.05)

6.5
-

3.7
21.4

8.2
4.5

28
4.5

12.0
240

14 12.0
6.2

9.8
3.2

Hossain et al., 2011

1st October sowing produced the highest main head yield and lateral head yield and 30 October sowing produced the lowest main head yield and lateral head yield.

Effect of spacing on yield of Broccoli


Time of sowing No. of leaves /plant Days to first harvest Lengt h of head (cm) Diame- ter of head (cm) Single head wt. (g) Main head yield (t/ha)

60x40cm
60x50cm 60x60cm CV(%) LSD(0.05

19.4
19.7 20.1 -

85.7
84.6 83.5 -

18.8
18.0 18.2 -

18.6
19.3 20.0 14.0 -

441
479 543 12.0 75.9 Hossain et al., 2011

16.3
14.7 12.8 6.1

The maximum single head weight was measured from 60cm x 60cm and the minimum single head weight was measured from 30cm x 30cm. Food accumulation was maximum in the plant which was grown at wider spacing.

Influence of plant spacing on quality of Cabbage


plants(m-2) Head density (g cm -3) Soluble solids (%) Dry matter (%)

16.6 10.8 8.2

0.62 a 0.76 b 0.89 c

5.3 a 5.6 a 5.8 a

10.6 a 9.6 b 8.8 c

Deloje et al., 2007

Head density, soluble solids and dry matter increase with increase in spacing .head density and dry matter gives significant difference with spacing .

Effect of molybdenum application on plant growth of cauliflower


Treatments Foliage FW molibdinum (kg) Control Mo 15 gl Mo 30 gl Mo 45 gl L.S.D. at 5% 5.04 5.15 5.34 5.35 0.07 Plant height No. of (cm) leaves/ plant 86.36 87.36 89.03 89.54 N.S 19.25 19.58 19.85 20.28 N.S Leaves FW (kg) 2.66 2.72 2.79 2.85 0.06 Leaves DW(%) 15.92 16.20 16.57 16.83 0.12

Mohamed et al., 2011

Increasing foliar application of molybdenum positively influenced vegetative growth characters. Foliage fresh weight, leaves fresh weight and leaves dry weight were significantly responded to the foliar application of molybdenum at 30 and 45 g/l than other treatments

Effect of molybdenum application on the yield of cauliflower curds

Treatments

Total yield (ton/fed) 10.769 10.981 11.115 11.137 0.050

Marketable yield (ton/fed) 10.168 10.408 10.568 10.599 0.079

Non-marketable yield (kg/fed) 601 573 547 538 10.6

Control Mo 15 gl Mo 30 gl Mo 45 gl L.S.D. at 5%

Mohamed et al., 2011

Molybdenum treatment had significant effect on total, marketable and nonmarketable yield. The maximum values of total and marketable yield and the minimum values of non-marketable yield were obtained when the plants were sprayed with Mo at 30 or 45 g/l.

Table 1.Effect of date of transplanting of head on seed yield and yield contributing characters of cabbage.

Treatment

Plant ht (cm)

Branches/plant

Pods/plant

Seed yield (kg/ha)

22 November 30 November 8 December 16 December 25 December

151.44 147.55 141.22 135.66 131.66

24.77 22.28 22.55 20.66 19.44

363.11 345.77 311.44 276.00 269.44

751 689 583 573 490

(Singh et al., 2000)

Conclusion: Maximum seed yield was obtained when the crop was transplanted on 22nd November.

Comparison of production methods in relation to yield and quality of seed


Plant make up In situ Transplanted Mean C.D. (P=0.05)

Seed yield/ plant (g) Stump Core intact Full head Mean 12.18 21.53 43.06 25.56 8.03 15.37 25.83 16.41 10.10 18.45 34.44 21.00 Plant make up Method Interaction 3.80 2.69 2.18

100 Seed Weight (mg)


Stump Core intact Full head Mean 1046 1040 1028 1038 1000 946 1025 990 1023 99 1027 1014 Plant make up Method Interaction NS 11.59 21.08

(Verma., 1998)

Effect of plant population on broccoli marketable yield and average weight of head
Population Plant /acre 14500 21750 29000 Marketable yield (25 lb . Ctn/ acre) 217 259 178 Avg head weight (oz) 5.7 4.6 2.8

Response
R value

NS
o.36 Kostewicz 1984

S
0.66

Average weight of marketable broccoli heads were negatively correlated with popuulation

Effect of various treatments on qualitative and quantitative parameters in cabbage Treatments


T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 SE+ C.D.(P=0.05)

stalk length (cm)


6.67 8.55 8.03 6.93 8.53 7.36 6.73 7.48 8.45 5.64 0.29 0.86

head to leaf ratio


1.16 1.31 1.22 1.23 1.2 1.28 1.14 1.3 1.17 1 0.08 NS

Compactness of head(%)
32.06 33.99 29.33 27.29 36.83 33.41 41.32 34.05 31.4 22.12 1.93 5.74

girth of head (cm)


13.2 14.22 15.38 14.3 14.93 13.47 13.17 13.33 14.91 10.9 10.9 0.58

Thank You