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Hierarchy of Safety:

1. ELIMINATE the hazard

2. If not practical, PREVENT


3. If not practical, CONTROL

Classification of Hazards
Direct Unguarded machines Falling / flying materials Slippery floors, etc. 2. Physical Noise Temperature extremes Ionizing / non-ionizing radiation Extreme pressure Vibration
1.

Classification of Hazards
Chemical Vapors Gas Dusts Fumes Mists 4. Biological Bacteria Virus Fungi 5. Ergonomics
3.

Three areas where hazards can be controlled:


(Pre-contact) Engineering Control : Elimination/minimization Enclosure of the hazard Redirection of hazard

1.

SOURCE
2.

PATH

RECEIVER

Administrative Control: 3. (Point of contact) Exposure time limitations Personal Protective Safe work practices Equipment Alarms and warning signs Last line of Training and education control/defense

1. Engineering Controls
If . . .The work environment can be physically changed to prevent employee exposure to existing and potential hazard, Then . . .The hazard can be eliminated with an engineering control Examples . . . Initial design specifications Substitute less harmful material Change process Enclose process Isolate process

2. Administrative Controls
If . . .The way employees do the job can be changed, and exposure to potential hazard is removed,

& others

Then . . .The hazard can be eliminated with administrative control

3. Personal Protective Equipment


Use personal protective equipment (PPE) if the engineering and administrative controls dont eliminate the hazards. PPE serves as barrier between the hazard and the worker.
Note: PPE is the last level of control!

LIMITATIONS OF PPE
Hazard still exists Protection to the wearer only If the PPE is defective or ineffective,

the user becomes exposed to hazard May introduce additional hazard May not be suitable for continuous use May not be always worn properly May transfer hazard to another location

Training
If employees are required to use PPE, train them:

Why it is necessary How it will protect them What are its limitations When and how to wear How to identify signs of wear How to clean and disinfect What is its useful life & how is it disposed

PROGRAM TO INTRODUCE PPE


1. WRITTEN POLICY 2. PROPER SELECTION OF PPE

3. 4. 5. 6.

assess the workplace to determine if hazards are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of PPE PROPER TRAINING MAINTENANCE PROGRAM INCENTIVE SYSTEM ENFORCEMENT

HEAD PROTECTION
Hard Hat

HAZARDS: 1. Impact 2. Penetration 3. Absorb shock 4. Electrical

Bump Cap

Selecting the Right Hard Hat


Class A General service (building construction, shipbuilding, lumbering) Good impact protection but limited voltage protection Class B Electrical / Utility work Protects against falling objects and high-voltage shock and burns Class C Designed for comfort, offers limited protection Protects against bumps from fixed objects, but does not protect against falling objects or electrical shock

EYE AND FACE PROTECTION


HAZARDS:

Safety glasses
Safety goggles

Flying particles Sparks Light radiation Splashes Gases

Face shields

EAR PROTECTION
HAZARDS:

Excessive Noise (exceeding 85 90 dB or more on eight hour exposure

Ear plug
Ear muffs Canal caps

Hearing Protection

Hearing Protection
When its not feasible to reduce the noise or its duration use ear protective devices Ear protective devices must be fitted

When Must Hearing Protection be Provided?


After implementing engineering and administrative controls When an employees noise exposure exceeds an 8-hour time- weighted average sound level of 85 dBA

Note: Hearing impairment is irreversible.

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
Filtration respirator HAZARDS: Mists, vapors, dusts Gases Smoke Fumes Sprays Insufficient oxygen supply Air-purifying respirator Air-supplying respirator

HAND AND ARM PROTECTION


HAZARDS: 1. Burns 2. Bruises 3. Abrasions 4. Cuts 5. Punctures 6. Fractures 7. Amputations 8. Chemical Exposures 9. Pinch points 10. Hot spots 11. Sharp objects 12. Electrical

Gloves Hand pads Sleeves Barrier cream

Types of Rubber Gloves


Nitrile protects against solvents, harsh chemicals, fats and petroleum products and also provides excellent resistance to cuts and abrasions. Butyl provides the highest permeation resistance to gas or water vapors

Other Types of Gloves


Kevlar protects against cuts, slashes, and abrasion

Stainless steel mesh protects against cuts and lacerations

FOOT AND LEG PROTECTION


Foot guards/

HAZARDS: Fall or rolling objects Sharp objects Hot surfaces Wet slippery surfaces

Safety shoes/boots Leggings

FALL PROTECTION
Safety belts

HAZARDS: Fall from heights

Safety harness Lanyards

TORSO or BODY PROTECTION


Vests Jackets

HAZARDS:

Aprons
Coveralls Full-body suits

Heat Splashes from hot metal Impacts Cuts Chemicals Radiation

Body Protection

Cooling Vest

Full Body Suit

Sleeves and Apron

PPE in OSHS
RULE 1080 - PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT AND DEVICES 1081: General Provisions: 1081.01: Every employer (as defined in 1002): (1)Shall at his own expense furnish his workers with protective equipment for the eyes, face, hands and feet, protective shields and barriers whenever necessary by reason of the hazardous nature of the process or environment, chemical or radiological or other mechanical irritants or hazards capable of causing injury or impairment in the function of any part of the body through absorption, inhalation or physical contact.