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BETTY NEUMAN

Betty Neuman
Received RN Diploma from Peoples Hospital School of Nursing, Akron, Ohio in 1947 Received BS in nursing from UCLA in 1957 Received Masters degree in Mental Health, Public Health Consultation from UCLA in 1966 Her model was first published as a 'Model for teaching total person approach to patient problems' in Nursing Research in 1972

Nursing Theory
Betty Neumans theory defines a total-person model for nursing, incorporating a holistic concept and an open-systems approach. Betty Neuman developed a multifaceted theory including: Client/person, Health, Environment, Nursing.

Client/Person Aspect of Theory


Neuman believes that nursing is concerned with the whole person including these dimensions: Physical/Physiological Psychological Socio-cultural Developmental Spiritual

Health Aspect of Theory


Health/wellness is "the condition in which all parts and subparts (variables) are in harmony with the whole of the client. Neuman proposes a wellness-illness continuum, with the person's position on that continuum being influenced by their interaction with the variables and the stressors they encounter.
http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/index.htm

Environmental Aspect of Theory


The environment is a force which surrounds a person and with which they interact at any given time that affects their wellbeing. Neuman also identified a created environment which is an environment that is created and developed unconsciously by the client and is symbolic of system wholeness.

Nursing Aspect of Theory Involves


The role of the nurse is seen in terms of degrees of reaction to stressors, and the use of primary, secondary and tertiary interventions.
Primary focuses on strengthening a line of defense through the identification if actual or potential risk factors associated with stressors Secondary prevention strengthens internal defensives and resources by establishing priorities and treatment plans for identified symptoms Tertiary focuses on re-adaptation and strengthens resistance to stressors through client education and prevention of a recurrence of the stress response
Potter and Perry. Fundamentals of Nursing

Neuman envisions a 3-stage nursing process:


Nursing Diagnosis - based on necessity of a thorough assessment and with consideration given to five variables in three stressor areas. Nursing Goals - these must be discussed with the patient and take account of patient's and nurse's perceptions of variance from wellness Nursing Outcomes - considered in relation to the five variables and achieved through primary, secondary and tertiary interventions.

Neuman System
The Neuman Systems Model is used at all levels of nursing education from diploma through doctorate. The model is used in many clinical areas in institutional and community nursing practice at national and international sites.

Neumans model can be used today as a framework for nursing practice when applied to:
the client her health the environment

The Client
Consists of the individual, the family, friends, as well as the community. The theory states, nurses should not only view the individual holistically, but should also take the family, friends, and the community into consideration.

Health
Neuman views health as a state of equilibrium between a clients internal and external environment. Health, according to Neuman, is equated with optimum system stability, that is, the best possible wellness state at any given time. Nurses apply this theory by individualizing the optimum state of wellness for each client.

Environment
Neumans concept of environment is that of an internal and external environment with varying degrees of harmony and balance between the two. By recognizing the two environments, the nurse educates and implements treatments that are individualized for each patient not only for her psychological, spiritual, and physiological nature, but also for her family and social relationships.

Neuman Model
Is compatible with todays health care philosophy by seeing the client in a holistic manner. Nurses provide this care through their assessment, diagnosis, treatment and education, and evaluation.

Does the Betty Neuman Nursing Theory describe what nursing is, or what it ought to be?
The Neuman Systems Model describes nursing as it is today. This model seems to serve as a blueprint for holistic nursing. By using this holistic point of view, a single approach is used to assess the needs and concerns of the patient. In doing so the main goal is to keep the clients condition stable due to environmental stressors. This model allows us to properly assess and treat patients holistically using 5 client variables. The 5 client variables are Physiological, Psychological, Developmental, Sociocultural, and Spiritual. Since nurses are the primary caregivers this theory provides a blueprint and describes nursing for what it is today. This system is very versatile and is used by all levels of nurses, from associate to doctorate nurses.