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C.B.SENTHILKUMAR

ROOD APPROACH
Muscles have different duties. Most of them

are a combination, but some predominate, in light work , others in heavy work.
Margaret

Rood, American Physical therapist, 1956.

Neurological ? RA,OA, Soft tissue injury, Post fractures ?

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Muscle Work
Light :
Phasic. Fast glycolytic. Superficial. Multiarthrodial.
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Heavy:
Tonic. Slow oxidative. Deep. Single joint muscle.
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Fusiform or strap. Small area

Pennate. Large area

attachment.
ActiveBlood

attachment.
All time rich in

supply.
High metabolic cost. Rapidly fatigue. Flexors & Adductors.
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blood.
Low metabolic cost. Slow fatigue. Extensors &

abductors.

To normalize the muscle tone


Facilitatory technique: --To normalize the muscle tone from a flaccid state. --Icing, fast brushing, tapping, stroking, quick stretch. Inhibitory technique: --To normalize the muscle tone from hypertonic or spastic state. --Deep pressure, slow rolling, and slow rocking.

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Facilitation
Light Work: Quick stretch.
Unpleasant stimuli. Pain

Heavy Work: Quick stretch.


Joint compression. Pressure wt.

stimu(Nociceptors).

bearing.

Lips, tongue, feet,

palm.

Resistance. Utricle &

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SCC(head

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Saccule(Static).

Features
Identification of goal. Identification of factors Poor function. Selecting the relevant need(motor activity). Selecting afferent stimuli. Timing of stimuli. Ensuring repetition.
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Goals
Communication. Manipulative skills. Gross motor function.

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Examination
Sensation. Perception. Postural reaction. Quality of movement. Muscle tone. Circulatory defects.
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Sequences in Gross Motor Development


A1:
Supine. Withdrawal pattern. Total flexion. Tonic heavy work. Reciprocal innervation. Bilateral. Centered at 10th

thoracic vertebrae.
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A2:
Roll over. Flexion top arm &

leg.
Phasic movement.

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A3:
Pivot pattern. Total extension. Reciprocal

innervation.
Bilateral. Cen at 10th

vertebrae.
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B. Fixed Distal Segments


B1:
Neck Co contraction,

Vertebral extension.
For head & neck

hyperkinesia.
To stabilise eyes if

nystagmus.

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B2:
Forearm support. Gleno humeral joint

alignment.

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B3:
All fours.

B4:
Sitting. Pressure on knees

through to heels Auto facilitation.

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C:
Movement over

D:
Skilled movement

fixed distal segment.


To Dynamic

distal end of limbs free.


To mobility. Reaching , Crawling,

stability.
Rock side to side,

back and forward.


Turning movements.

Walking.
Objective &

Functional.
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Movement Control Sequence


Flexion. Extension. Adduction. Abduction. Rotation.

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Receptors
Cutaneous:
Quick light brushing:

Nerve root. Soft artist or decorators brush or electrically powered.


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Anterior primary rami local, superficial muscles. Posterior primary rami deep back muscle. Face muscles of mastication & expression( V VII ).
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Delay upto 20 min for inhibited not used

recently.

Rapid stimulation effective over Poor

circulation.

Cutaneous stimulation rapid & large ms

spindle modulation thro gamma motoneuron reflexes- Loeb & Hoffer (1981).
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Brief Cold Application


Quick wipe with ice cube. Warm limb. Immediate & most effective. Limb Extensors. To palm of hand mental process. Lips , tongue suck, swallow, speech.
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Slow Stroking
Neck to sacrum over centre of back

chorea athetosis or excessive muscle tone.


Rhythmically for 3 minutes.

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Precautions
Brush:
Aware of effect. 3 sec in one place. Repeated in bursts at intervals. Do not use mechanical tools. In flaccid infant seizures(stroking adviced). Ear , outer 3rd forehead central inhi. Avoid

in brain stem injury.

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Precautions
Ice:
Behind ear sudden of blood pressure. Sole , Palm nociceptive(avoid in children &

emotionally unstable). Ice over posterior primary rami which shares nerve supply to vessels supplies organ. Left shoulder in cardiac diseased.

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Muscle Spindles
Quick Stretch: Ia afferent Facilitatory. Slow Stretch:
Single joint deep muscles 5 minutes

II(length measuring from nuclear chain fibres) Inhi. Quadriceps, hip abductors, lumbar & cervical deep extensors, glenohumeral & shoulder girdle retractors.

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Vibration
Mech vibrator muscle on stretch muscle

spindle stim tonic vibratory reflex.


Cutaneous brushing prior to vibrator

effective.

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Golgi Tendon Organs(Ib)


Contraction receptors. Auto inhi to a non resisted repeated

contraction. Multiarthrodial. Fast glycolytic. Slow repeated Flexors & Adductors strong isotonic for extensors. Inhi only for flexor not for extensors?
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Mechanoreceptors
Maintained pressure medial heeldorsiflexor. Pressure Heel of hand normalization. Pisiform pressure. Skull to ischial weighted cap, shoulder bag

athetosis.
Skin stimu over convex part. Compression over concave part.
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Labyrinthine System
Head mvmt in vetical (revolving chair) SCC

postural tone & improves in bradykinesia.


Prone on tilting plinth , large ball head rock

up & down activation of fast twitch muscles.


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Special Sense Organs


Nose & Mouth face & tongue mvmt. Quinine on back of tongue tongue thrust. Ammonia nose Parkinson mask. Lemon juice salivation swallowing , clear

secretion from throat.


Optical righting reactions. Roods facili resp ms in unconscious
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Timing
Body position & activity. Head control before swallow or speech

therapy.
Skin brushing precedes all other stimuli. Verbal coincide with stimuli(icing).

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Repetition
Axoplasmic flow changes nerve & muscle

tissue molecules.
Sufficient period of time changes in muscle

unit type.
Regimes planned to follow in daily routine at

home beneficial.

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Thank U

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