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Basic First Aid

DCPQS section 105

By: HS1 Warzynski

Purpose of First Aid


1. 2.

Save lives

Prevent infection

3.

Prevent further injury

FIRST RESPONDERS ACTIONS


1. REPORT THE CASUALTY -Call bridge, Quarterdeck, local EMS
7.1 GFE INTRODUCTION

2. Survey the Area for DANGER


to yourself: Don't Put Yourself in Danger!

to others: Don't Allow Bystanders to be Exposed to Danger!


to the casualty: Remove the Danger from the Casualty, or the Casualty From the Danger!

FIRST RESPONDERS ACTIONS


TO TRANSPORT OR NOT TO TRANSPORT, THAT IS THE QUESTION.
HAMLET, M.D.

FIRST AID PRIORITIES


A-B-CS

AIRWAY

BREATHING

CONTROL

BLEEDING TREAT FOR SHOCK TREAT BROKEN BONES GET CASUALTY TO MEDICAL

CIRCULATION

SHOCK

Definition: Inadequate oxygenation of the cells and tissues of the body caused by insufficient flow of oxygen rich blood. (not enough circulating O2 in the body).

Causes: (some examples)

Electrocution Excessive bleeding Allergic reaction

ALL treated the same way! ABCs, keep warm, elevate feet, nothing to eat or drink.

Controlling Bleeding

Three types of bleeding


Arterial Venous Capillary

Whats the difference? What type is this?

4 Easy steps to control bleeding


Direct pressure with hand or bandage Elevation above level of the heart. Pressure points!!! Tourniquet ONLY AS A LAST RESORT!!!!

Bleeding
Direct Pressure
Use a sterile dressing or clean cloth Fold to form pad Apply pressure directly over wound Fasten with bandage; knot over wound If bleeding continues, add second pressure dressing

Bleeding
Pressure Points
Apply pressure where artery lies near skin over bone.

Pressure Points

A pressure point is any


place in the body where you can trap an artery between your fingers and a bone or cartilage, there for stopping or slowing blood flow. Simple enough.

Some common Pressure points

Carotid =Neck Brachial = inner arm Femoral = lateral groin Axillary = under armpit

TOURNIQUET

Only as a last resort!!!!!! Never skip right to tourniquet before trying other means. Apply about 2-4 inches (or as close as you can) to wound site. Write a T and the time on the victims forehead Anyone can use a tourniquet, only a doctor can remove one.

Tourniquets and skin markers are located in all gunbags onboard Gentian.

Tourniquet application

Asphyxiation

Definition: Inability to breath, not breathing. Begin rescue breathing. Head tilt chin lift . Give one breath every 5 seconds. Avg. adult breaths between 12-20 times a minute. Remember ABCs

Gunbag items:
O.P.A. (oropharyngeal airways)
Pocket masks

Fractures (2 Types)

Simple fracture: Doesnt mean one break The bone is broken but hasnt penetrated through the skin. Seeing a joint somewhere on a body where a joint doesnt belong.treat it like a fracture.

Compound fracture:

The skin is broken over the fracture site. Bone does NOT have to be sticking out to be a compound fracture. Whats the added risk with this type????

Fractures
Signs and Symptoms

Pain Swelling Bruise Deformity False Motion Crepitus

Tenderness Exposed fragment Locked joint Guarding Unable to support weight

Fractures

Greenstick Simple Comminuted Compound Impacted

Classification

Fractures
Greenstick

Incomplete separation of bone fragments

Fracture
Simple

Two distinct bone fragments

Fractures
Comminuted

Multiple bone fragments

Fracture
Compound

Bone penetrated through skin May or May NOT still be present outside the body. Added risk of infection with compound fracture.

Fractures
Impacted

One bone fragment telescopes into the other

Fractures
Treatment

Remove clothing from area Check ability to move and feel below fracture Check circulation below fracture Cover open wound Splint
Immobilize joints above and below fracture Reduces pain Prevents additional damage Pad all rigid splints

Fractures
Treatment (cont.)

When in doubt, SPLINT Ice not directly to skin Position injured limb slightly above level of heart if easily possible Immobilize all suspected spinal injuries Shock - treat Report Transport

Fractures
Triangle bandage under injured arm; over uninjured shoulder Tie ends of sling at side of neck pad under knot Secure arm with cravat under good arm

Splinting and Immobilizing Sling

Fractures
Splinting and Immobilizing
(cont.)

Splints

Magazine

Shirt Flap

Shirttail

Heat Emergencies

Heat Cramps Heat exhaustion Heat Stroke

Heat Cramps

Caused by loss of fluids and salt from the body, resulting in muscle cramps Treatment:
Remove the person from the environment. Cool the person Rest Allow small sips of water, gatorade or ice chips.

Heat Exhaustion

Signs and symptoms:


Normal to low body temperature Skin pale, moist, cool and clammy Breathing rapid and shallow Nausea and/or vomiting Profuse sweating Treatment: Remove from environment, cool patient, rest, small sips of water, ice chips.

Heat Stroke

*THIS IS A LIFE THREATENING EMERGENCY* Signs/Symptoms


Hot, dry skin, No sweating is present!!! May be unconscious Increased body temperature >105F TX: ABCs, Call for Help! Remove patient from hot area and remove clothing Cool Patient using icepacks to groin, armpits, and neck. Spray them down with water and fan them *ABSOLUTELY nothing by mouth*

BURNS, BURNS, BURNS

THREE DEGREES OF BURNS:


1ST 2ND 3RD

All treated the same way.

Burns

Classification by depth Size generally more important than degree First degree: mildest Second degree: inner layer of skin Third degree: tissue destroyed

Burns
Normal Skin

Dermis Fat Muscle

Burns
First Degree

Skin Reddened

Only outer layer of skin Mild pain Redness Warmth Tenderness

Burns
Second Degree

Inner layer of skin Red Warm Tender Blister Severe pain

Burns
Third Degree

Tissue is destroyed Charred (white to black) May lack feeling

Burns
Treatment

Use body substance isolation methods Extinguish fire Do not remove burned clothing unless it is smoldering Cool burn rapidly (immerse burn in cool water if possible 10 minutes maximum) Always do a complete assessment there may be other serious injuries

Burns

Electrical: remove patient from source with nonconductive material Chemical: flush with water for 10-20 minutes Cover with dry sterile dressing Treat for shock Always obtain medical care

Treatment (cont.)

Burns
Serious

Monitor airway Reassess vital signs every 5 minutes Do not give fluids by mouth Do not place ice on any burn

Burns

Eyes
Flush

Special Situations

with water for 5 minutes Cover both eyes

Burns
Special Situations

Respiratory track
Always

a medical emergency Singeing of nasal hairs Cough Hoarseness Difficulty breathing

Head and Neck = 9% Each arm = 9% (totaling 18%) Front of chest = 9% Stomach = 9% Upper back = 9% Lower back = 9% Front of each leg = 9% (totaling 18%) Back of each leg = 9% (totaling 18%) Groin = 1% (+/-)
Total

Rule of Nines

body % = 100.

Rule of the Palm

The size of the patients palm (not your own) equals 1% of their total body surface.

Easy enough.

The End

Remember:

Stay calm Call for help ABCs Check for other injuries Treat for shock Always reassess ABCs