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Section 6-4 US enters the Fight (WWII)

Mr. Klein Spring 2013

Prologue

War at Sea Battle of the Atlantic Sept. 1941 1945


(Before Pearl Harbor)

Battle of the Atlantic


Longest battle of war (1940-1945) Wolfpacks of subs vs. Allied convoys

US enters before Pearl Harbor (Sept. 1941)


Neutrality Patrols and Shoot on Sight

Allies win but heavy losses


3,500 Allied ships vs. 771 Nazi Submarines

Where to Fight?
First question for US is whether to fight against Nazis or Japanese first? Which do you think FDR prefers? Why?

Arcadia Conference (Dec. 1941)


FDR and Churchill meet in D.C. to strategize Dec. 22, 1941 Jan. 14, 1942 Determine that defeating Hitler must be first priority
Called Europe First Strategy

Arcadia Conference
Produces Declaration of United Nations
Signed by 26 allied nations

Nations agree to principles of Atlantic Charter


Earlier (1941) agreement between US and GB Use all resources to defeat Axis No separate peace Occupied nations decide own futures once freed

Basis for United Nations of today (1945)

But Where to Attack in Europe?

Europe 1941-1943

England wanted to attack Italy from Northern Africa in 1942

The U.S. wanted to attack across Nazi-controlled France by 1943

To win the European campaign, 2 different plans were proposed

Second Washington Conference


FDR and Churchill reconvene June 20, 1942
Where attack in European Theater?

FDR wants to invade France ASAP


Start second front which will please USSR

Churchill favors North Africa


Hitler has reinforced Italys armies Hitler Wants to take Egypt (Suez Canal) and cut off oil to Allies

Second Washington Conference


FDR and Churchill reconvene June 20, 1942
Where attack in European Theater?

FDR wants to invade France ASAP


Start second front which will please USSR

Churchill favors North Africa


Hitler has reinforced Italys armies Wants to take Egypt (Suez) and cut off oil to Allies Believes not feasible to invade FR at present N. Africa gives launching point to invade Italy
Soft Underbelly of Europe

Who is Allied Military Commander?

Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower


Commanding General, European Theater of Operations

North African Campaign


Nov 8, 1942 May 13,1943

N. Africa before US Arrives


IT trying to expand East from Libya into GB controlled Egypt After IT fails in 1940, Hitler sends armored Afrika Corps (tanks) to assist in Feb 1941 Take Egypt = own Suez Canal and cut off oil supply Rommel pushes 100 miles into Egypt
Gen. Erwin Rommel The Desert Fox

Battle of El Alamein
GB must stop Rommel AND Rommel is short of supplies Montgomery gets intercepted battle plan of Rommel to attack to the South in Fall of 1942 GB resists tank assault and bombers destroy large number of GER tanks GER must retreat Montgomery does not pursue (waiting for US Sherman Tanks)
Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery (GB)

M-4 Sherman Tank

Battle of El Alamein
TURNING POINT in N. Africa!!!!!
Montgomery tricks Rommel fakes attack to south.

Attacks to North instead!


Wins long bloody battle Afrika Corps largely destroyed Hitler orders to fight to last man BUT Rommel refuses and retreats further into Libya on Nov 2, 1942
Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery (GB)

U.S. Lands in N. Africa


U.S. armored troops arrive in WESTERN N. Africa on Nov 8, 1942
Operation Torch

With GB in EAST, goal is to catch Axis in pincers of 2 armies U.S. lands in Algeria, and Morocco (Vichy French)

Lt. Gen George Patton Old Blood and Guts Commander Western Task Force

U.S. Lands in N. Africa


U.S. armored troops arrive in WESTERN N. Africa on Nov 8, 1942
Operation Torch

With GB in EAST, goal is to catch Axis in pincers of 2 armies

U.S. lands in Algeria, and Morocco (Vichy French)


Vichy mount armed opposition to US forces in Morocco and Oran NOT in Algiers French Resistance overthrows Vichy Government

Hitler occupies ALL of France

Lt. Gen George Patton Old Blood and Guts Commander Western Task Force

Results of Operation Torch


Rommel forced to retreat all the way to Tunisia cannot retreat further West

Tries to convince Hitler that holding N. Africa not possible


Hitler replaces Rommel

GER fight in Tunisia for 2 more months - forced to surrender 230,000 men on May 13,1943 Allies Control North Africa!!

What will Allies do next?????

Casablanca Conference
(January 1943)

Henri Giraud (Free French Forces), FDR, Charles de Gaulle (FFF), Churchill

Casablanca Conference (January 1943)


US, GB and French Resistance leaders in Morocco Determine next steps in War
FDR still pushing for crosschannel invasion
Churchill wins day Italy first

Agreement that Allies will fight to Unconditional Surrender of Axis


Charles de Gaulle

Invasion of Sicily and Italy


July 1943

Invasion of Sicily
US and GB (plus Canadian) forces will make amphibious landing on island of Sicily

US forces commanded by Patton


Operation Husky begins night of July 8-9, 1943
Paratroopers dropped onto island to seize strategic bridges and roads
Seaborne landing next day (surprise due to bad weather) VERY smooth landing (Italians not prepared to resist on beaches)

Sicily Falls
Sicily was occupied by both IT and GER forces Allied forces take Sicily in 38 days All Axis forces evacuated back to Italy

HUGE repercussions in Italy


July 24, 1943 : Mussolini DEPOSED as dictator
King restored to power Fascist party DESOLVED Mussolini imprisoned (but in mountain resort)

So Now What in Italy???


Non-Fascist Italian govt wants to negotiate peace with Allies

Come to agreement that Italy will surrender


Agreement reached September 3, 1943

Italian forces will surrender to Allies upon invasion


Try to keep agreement SECRET from Germany (Will not announce surrender until Sept. 8)

Sounds Easy.BUT.

Italy Still Must be Conquered


GER Troops had been invited to Italy
Occupy much of the country (esp. north)
Germany hears about Italian surrender:
Immediately prepares to capture positions held by Italian troops NO INTENTION OF SURRENDER

Invasion of Italy (Sept 3, 1943)


Landing easy because Italians planning to surrender

Allies land on toe of boot and mid-shin


Hope to draw Germans south and trap them

Invasion of Italy (Sept 3, 1943)


Landing easy because Italians planning to surrender

Allies land on toe of boot and mid-shin


Hope to draw Germans south and trap them

Germany does not fall for plan


Captures Italian troops and positions Moves North outside of Allied net Resistance is FIERCE

Fighting will last until 1945


190,000 Allied casualties 500,000 Axis

What happens to Mussolini?


Hitler IRATE that Italians betray him Breaks Mussolini out of captivity and sets him up as King of a Northern Italian Socialist Nation Mussolini later captured by Italians trying to flee Allied advance Executed on April 28, 1945 with 7 other Fascist leaders Body dragged through streets and hung on public display at gas station (shot, spat upon)

Next Stop.France

Operation Overlord
US, GB, Canada and FFF plan for crosschannel invasion of France MONUMENTAL LOGISTICAL Challenge
6,000 ships 100,000 men in first three days (3 million total) 13,000 vehicles

SECURITY Challenge
Gather men and equipment without tipping off Germany as to timing or location of attack Avoid SPIES and/or accidental leaks

Operation Overlord: Preparation


Actual D-Day landing called Operation Neptune Make GER think will attack Pas de Calais

Operation Overlord: Preparation


Actual landing called Operation Neptune

Make GER think will attack Pas de Calais


Closest to GB BUT heavily fortified

ACTUALLY land at NORMANDY How will Allies trick them?

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwnMAet72Zc

Operation Neptune: The Plan


Invade 5 beaches on Normandy Coast

Paratroopers (and glider troops) drop inland to take out artillery

Atlantic Wall

Atlantic Wall

June 6, 1944
Invasion originally June 5 delayed (weather) Planes depart at midnight boats later (arrive at first light (6:30 am)
Drop Paratroopers and bomb GER fortifications

Heavy AA fire paratroopers scattered across N. France Many fortifications un-damaged


Cant seize all objectives before beach landings.

Channel waters become very rough but boats past point of no return.

Paratroopers (and glider troops) drop inland to take out artillery

Casualties of D-Day
Approx. 5,000 soldiers killed in first hours of invasion (10,000 wounded)
Worst at Omaha Beach (U.S. Forces)

Allies do overrun defenses and open beaches for large-scale landing of troops Hitler has reserve troops available (Rommel!!) but will not move them from Pas de Calais
Still thinks fake army is coming to invade!! By time sends Panzer divisions, too late

Normandy After D-Day


Must then fight through inland German forces into France
Entire Battle of Normandy claims 53,000 lives (190,000 total casualties June 1944 Aug 1944)

Opens doors for full invasion of France

Paris Liberated!
August 25,1944

Vichy OUT!
Vichy govt sent into exile French Republic Restored

President?
Charles de Gaulle

Allied Bombing
US and GB relentlessly bomb German cities
Destroy production capacity Break will of people to fight

Allied Bombing
US and GB relentlessly bomb German cities:
Destroy production capacity Break will of people to fight

This is TOTAL WAR civilians are targets, not just military

Estimated 350,000 German civilians killed and another 780,000 wounded.


(US Strategic Bombing Survey (1945))

Battle of the Bulge (Dec. 16, 1944)


Hitler launches one last offensive through Ardennes Forest (Belgium)
Goal is to break through lines of Allied advance and take port of Antwerp in Belgium

Create many causalities convince Allies to negotiate peace

Attack is SURPRISE
Ardennes not well defended Hitler storms through and creates Bulge in Allied lines

Notice BASTOGNE is SURROUNDED but NOT TAKEN by Nazis

Siege of Bastogne
Bastogne is where 7 roads come together
Key to Nazis moving tanks and supplies

US troops (101st Airborne) outnumbered 5-1 and surrounded


BAD winter weather no winter clothes or supplies (cant resupply)

US troops bravely hold their perimeter for 7 days (Dec. 20-27) until.

Patton to the Rescue!!


Patton and his 3rd Army get the call to Bastogne
Currently 125 miles south (Dec. 19) Disengages - turns north, moving at blinding speed

30 miles a day fighting and marching (snow) Arrives Dec. 26 and breaks siege

Results of German Offensive


Allies are able to push Germany back (eliminate bulge in lines) Allied losses heavy (US loses 75,000 men) BUT GER losses worse
Lose most experienced soldiers (100,000 men) Lose large number of tanks Cannot replace either No ability to launch any further offensive actions

Race to Berlin
US and USSR begin to advance into GER
GER cannot mount counter-offensive

Continuous retreat

Soviets encircle Berlin April 23,1945

Death of Hitler
Hitler retreats to bunker
Declares war lost Marries Eva Braun (40 hrs!)

Hears about death of Mussolini Says NOT ME! Eva and Adolph commit suicide April 30, 1945 Bodies secreted away but found later dental records confirmed

Germany Surrenders
After Hitler dead, GER forces begin to surrender
May 1 (GER army in IT) May 2 (Berlin)

Unconditional Surrender of GER on May 8, 1945

VE DAY!

Next Stop. JAPAN

Hague and Geneva Conventions


Agreements on how POWs (captured soldiers) must be treated during war created before WW2
Humane treatment No killing of surrendered soldiers Adequate food, shelter, medicine, etc. Release at end of conflict

Japan signs Hague, but not Geneva Japan, however, agrees to abide by the principles of the Geneva Convention in 1942 BUT Japan expressly exempts Chinese prisoners from protection

Brutality of Japanese Military


Japan has shown no regard for rules of war since beginning of war with China

EXTREME BRUTALITY
Captured civilians used as forced labor

Mass killings (30 million civilians 24 million in China alone)


POWs brutally treated
37% of POWs die (compare to 1.2% of German POWs)

Two Horrific Examples of this:

Nanking Massacre (1937)


Japan captures capital city of China during 2nd Sino-Japanese War
Take 90,000 soldiers as POWs
Torture them (use for bayonet practice, decapitate them, etc.) despite fact they surrendered

Rampage through city killing 50% of civilians (300,000 men, women and children)

Sexually assaulted 20,000 Chinese women (Rape of Nanking)


Did it all PROUDLY

Fall of Philippines (1942)


Philippines fall to Japan in April 1942
MacArthur: I shall return as forced to evacuate 80,000 American and Filipino soldiers surrender

Japanese have no plan for dealing with POWs


Consider surrender to be so dishonorable believe soldiers not entitled to humane treatment

Immediately execute 400 Filipino officers


Decide to transfer all other prisoners 80 miles from Corregidor to San Fernando

March Route

Bataan Death March (1942)


Abusive Conduct on March:
No food and only water is filthy buffalo wallows on sides of road (in extreme heat). Randomly bayonetted prisoners en route

Killed anyone who was moving too slowly


Forced other prisoners to bury stragglers alive Ran over with trucks if fall and cannot walk

Approx 11,500 prisoners killed or die of exhaustion on Death March (and 90 a day once at destination)

Europe FirstSort of
While Allies agree Europe is 1st Priority, US already fighting Japan (alone):
Doolittle Raid (April 1942)
Daring bombing raid of Tokyo

Bombers take off from carrier USS Hornet


Bombers cannot land on ships

Little damage
Psychological victory for US
Lt. Col. James Doolittle

Battle of the Coral Sea


Important Naval Battle (May 4-8, 1942) US intercepts message that Japan intends to isolate Australia Sends Naval Force to engage Japan

Battle of the Coral Sea


Important Naval Battle (May 4-8, 1942) US intercepts message that Japan intends to isolate Australia Sends Naval Force to engage Japan Noteworthy because:
First naval battle where ships never see each other (all aircraft)

Fight to a DRAW (both lose 1 carrier and have one damaged -- but no winner)
First time US stops Japan from expanding

Battle of Midway
TURNING POINT in PACIFIC (June 4-7, 1942) US intercepts message indicating Japan will attack bases at Midway Island Japan hopes to:
Lure US carriers into battle to destroy them
Seize Midway Island to sure up hold on Pacific

Japan sends its 4 largest carriers to attack


US will have three carriers laying in waitincluding

USS Yorktown!!

Japan Strikes First.


Launches planes against airfields on Midway

Japan Strikes First.


Launches planes against airfields on Midway Targets hit .But airfields NOT destroyed Now it is the Americans turn

US Sinks 3 Aircraft Carriers

Including Japanese Flagship Akagi

Japan Strikes Back

Results of Battle of Midway


US sinks all four major Japanese aircraft carriers
Loses only one carrier (USS Yorktown) Japan builds 3 new carriers US builds 22 Japan loses 40% of aircrews (take 2 yrs to train)

Japanese Navy crippledonly two carriers left US will have the advantage for the rest of the war Now can start retaking islands

Island Hopping

Notable Island Invasions


Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands) Aug 1942 - Feb 43 Philippines - October 1944 Iwo Jima Feb 1945

Okinawa June 1945 (LAST STAND FOR JP)

Island Hopping

Notable Island Invasions


Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands) Aug 1942 - Feb 43
Enemy wages guerilla war rather than surrender

Philippines - October 1944


Kamikazes 80,000 JP fight, only 1,000 alive to surrender

Iwo Jima Feb 1945

Okinawa June 1945 (LAST STAND FOR JP)

Island Hopping

Notable Island Invasions


Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands) Aug 1942 - Feb 43
Enemy wages guerilla war rather than surrender

Philippines - October 1944


Kamikazes 80,000 JP fight, only 1,000 alive to surrender

Iwo Jima Feb 1945


74 days bombing then month to take 11 miles2 3 days = 700 yards gained on unpopulated island 25,000 JP defenders 216 alive to surrender

Okinawa June 1945 (LAST STAND FOR JP)

Island Hopping

Notable Island Invasions


Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands) Aug 1942 - Feb 43
Enemy wages guerilla war rather than surrender

Philippines - October 1944


Kamikazes 80,000 JP fight, only 1,000 alive to surrender

Iwo Jima Feb 1945


74 days bombing then month to take 11 miles2 3 days = 700 yards gained on unpopulated island 25,000 JP defenders 216 alive to surrender

Okinawa June 1945 (LAST STAND FOR JP)


Banzai / Kamakazi attacks 100,000 defenders 7,200 alive to surrender 50,000 allied casualties in 3 months

One last Important Island


Saipan (Mariana Islands) - June 1944

Island Hopping

One last Important Island


Saipan (Mariana Islands) - June 1944 30,000 JP defenders (1,000 taken alive) Gives access to Guam and Tinian Launching point to bomb mainland Japan
Within 3,250 mile range of new B-29 Superfortress bombers