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Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Theory and Practice

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Examples of oscillation
ball on a spring pendulum rotating earth

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Pulse
The ball starts to oscillate as soon as it is pushed
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Oscillation

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Movement of the ball over time

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Frequency

Time From the duration of one oscillation T the frequency f (number of oscillations per second) is calculated: T

One full oscillation T

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


The actual displacement a is termed as:

a A sin

a
Time

90

180

270

360
Phase

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Spectrum of sound
Frequency range Hz Description
Example

0 - 20 20 - 20.000 > 20.000

Infrasound
Audible sound Ultrasound

Earth quake Speech, music Bat, Quartz crystal

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Atomic structures

gas

liquid

solid

low density weak bonding forces

medium density medium bonding forces

high density strong bonding forces crystallographic structure

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Understanding wave propagation:

Ball = atom

Spring = elastic bonding force

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

T
distance travelled

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

During one oscillation T the wave front propagates by the distance :

Distance travelled

From this we derive:


c T

or

c f

Wave equation

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Sound propagation

Longitudinal wave
Direction of oscillation

Direction of propagation

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Sound propagation
Transverse wave
Direction of oscillation

Direction of propagation

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Wave propagation
Longitudinal waves propagate in all kind of materials. Transverse waves only propagate in solid bodies. Due to the different type of oscillation, transverse waves travel at lower speeds. Sound velocity mainly depends on the density and Emodulus of the material.
Air Water Steel, long Steel, trans 330 m/s

1480 m/s
5920 m/s 3250 m/s

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Reflection and Transmission
As soon as a sound wave comes to a change in material characteristics ,e.g. the surface of a workpiece, or an internal inclusion, wave propagation will change too:

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Behaviour at an interface
Medium 1 Medium 2

Incoming wave

Transmitted wave

Reflected wave
Interface

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Reflection + Transmission: Perspex - Steel
1,87

Incoming wave

1,0 0,87

Transmitted wave

Reflected wave

Perspex
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Steel

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Reflection + Transmission: Steel - Perspex
Incoming wave
1,0

Transmitted wave

0,13

-0,87
Reflected wave

Perspex
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Steel

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Amplitude of sound transmissions:

Water - Steel

Copper - Steel

Steel - Air Strong reflection with inverted phase No transmission

Strong reflection No reflection Double transmission Single transmission

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Piezoelectric Effect

+
Battery

Piezoelectrical Crystal (Quartz)


Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Piezoelectric Effect

The crystal gets thicker, due to a distortion of the crystal lattice


Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Piezoelectric Effect

+
The effect inverses with polarity change
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Piezoelectric Effect
Sound wave with frequency f

U(f)

An alternating voltage generates crystal oscillations at the frequency f


Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Piezoelectric Effect

Short pulse ( < 1 s )

A short voltage pulse generates an oscillation at the crystals resonant frequency f0


Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Reception of ultrasonic waves
A sound wave hitting a piezoelectric crystal, induces crystal vibration which then causes electrical voltages at the crystal surfaces. Electrical energy Piezoelectrical crystal

Ultrasonic wave

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Ultrasonic Probes
socket crystal Damping Delay / protecting face Electrical matching Cable

Straight beam probe

TR-probe
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Angle beam probe

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


RF signal (short)

100 ns

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


RF signal (medium)

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Sound field

Crystal

Focus

Accoustical axis

Angle of divergence
6

D0

Near field

Far field

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Ultrasonic Instrument

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Ultrasonic Instrument

+ Uh

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Ultrasonic Instrument

+ Uh

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Ultrasonic Instrument
+
Uv

Uh

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Block diagram: Ultrasonic Instrument
amplifier

IP

screen
BE

horizontal sweep clock pulser

probe work piece


Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Sound reflection at a flaw
s

Probe

Sound travel path

Flaw

Work piece

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Plate testing
IP BE

plate

delamination

10

IP = Initial pulse

F = Flaw
BE = Backwall echo

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Wall thickness measurement

s
s

Corrosion

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Through transmission testing
Through transmission signal

R
0 2 4 6 8 10

Flaw

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Weld inspection
a = s sin

F
s
0 20 40 60 80 100

a' = a - x
d' = s cos d = 2T - t'

= probe angle s = sound path a = surface distance a = reduced surface distance d = virtual depth d = actual depth T = material thickness

Work piece with welding

a a' s
Lack of fusion

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Straight beam inspection techniques:
Direct contact, single element probe Direct contact, Fixed delay

dual element probe

Through transmission

Immersion testing

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing


Immersion testing
1
surface = sound entry backwall IP

2
water delay

flaw

IE

1
BE

IP

IE

2
BE
F

10

10

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems