Sei sulla pagina 1di 42

# Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Theory and Practice

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Examples of oscillation
ball on a spring pendulum rotating earth

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Pulse
The ball starts to oscillate as soon as it is pushed
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Oscillation

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Movement of the ball over time

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Frequency

Time From the duration of one oscillation T the frequency f (number of oscillations per second) is calculated: T

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

The actual displacement a is termed as:

a A sin

a
Time

90

180

270

360
Phase

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Spectrum of sound
Frequency range Hz Description
Example

## 0 - 20 20 - 20.000 > 20.000

Infrasound
Audible sound Ultrasound

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Atomic structures

gas

liquid

solid

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Understanding wave propagation:

Ball = atom

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

T
distance travelled

## During one oscillation T the wave front propagates by the distance :

Distance travelled

c T

or

c f

Wave equation

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Sound propagation

Longitudinal wave
Direction of oscillation

Direction of propagation

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Sound propagation
Transverse wave
Direction of oscillation

Direction of propagation

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Wave propagation
Longitudinal waves propagate in all kind of materials. Transverse waves only propagate in solid bodies. Due to the different type of oscillation, transverse waves travel at lower speeds. Sound velocity mainly depends on the density and Emodulus of the material.
Air Water Steel, long Steel, trans 330 m/s

1480 m/s
5920 m/s 3250 m/s

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Reflection and Transmission
As soon as a sound wave comes to a change in material characteristics ,e.g. the surface of a workpiece, or an internal inclusion, wave propagation will change too:

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Behaviour at an interface
Medium 1 Medium 2

Incoming wave

Transmitted wave

Reflected wave
Interface

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Reflection + Transmission: Perspex - Steel
1,87

Incoming wave

1,0 0,87

Transmitted wave

Reflected wave

Perspex
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Steel

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Reflection + Transmission: Steel - Perspex
Incoming wave
1,0

Transmitted wave

0,13

-0,87
Reflected wave

Perspex
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

Steel

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Amplitude of sound transmissions:

Water - Steel

Copper - Steel

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Piezoelectric Effect

+
Battery

## Piezoelectrical Crystal (Quartz)

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Piezoelectric Effect

## The crystal gets thicker, due to a distortion of the crystal lattice

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Piezoelectric Effect

+
The effect inverses with polarity change
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Piezoelectric Effect
Sound wave with frequency f

U(f)

## An alternating voltage generates crystal oscillations at the frequency f

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Piezoelectric Effect

## A short voltage pulse generates an oscillation at the crystals resonant frequency f0

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Reception of ultrasonic waves
A sound wave hitting a piezoelectric crystal, induces crystal vibration which then causes electrical voltages at the crystal surfaces. Electrical energy Piezoelectrical crystal

Ultrasonic wave

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic Probes
socket crystal Damping Delay / protecting face Electrical matching Cable

## Straight beam probe

TR-probe
Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

RF signal (short)

100 ns

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

RF signal (medium)

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Sound field

Crystal

Focus

Accoustical axis

Angle of divergence
6

D0

Near field

Far field

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic Instrument

10

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic Instrument

+ Uh

10

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic Instrument

+ Uh

10

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic Instrument
+
Uv

Uh

10

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Block diagram: Ultrasonic Instrument
amplifier

IP

screen
BE

## probe work piece

Krautkramer NDT Ultrasonic Systems

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Sound reflection at a flaw
s

Probe

Flaw

Work piece

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Plate testing
IP BE

plate

delamination

10

IP = Initial pulse

F = Flaw
BE = Backwall echo

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Wall thickness measurement

s
s

Corrosion

10

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Through transmission testing
Through transmission signal

R
0 2 4 6 8 10

Flaw

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Weld inspection
a = s sin

F
s
0 20 40 60 80 100

a' = a - x
d' = s cos d = 2T - t'

= probe angle s = sound path a = surface distance a = reduced surface distance d = virtual depth d = actual depth T = material thickness

a a' s
Lack of fusion

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Straight beam inspection techniques:
Direct contact, single element probe Direct contact, Fixed delay

## dual element probe

Through transmission

Immersion testing

## Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing

Immersion testing
1
surface = sound entry backwall IP

2
water delay

flaw

IE

1
BE

IP

IE

2
BE
F

10

10