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# Question: What is the meaning of “bipolar” ?

### Slide 8-1

8.1
Introduction to the BJT
NPN BJT:
B
E
C
N +
P
N
I C
V B E
Emitter
Base
Collector
V BE
V CB
V CB
0
I C is an exponential
function of forward
V BE and independent
of reverse V CB .
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)
Slide 8-2
Common-Emitter Configuration
Question: Why is I B often preferred as a parameter over V BE ?

### Slide 8-3

8.2
Collector Current
depletion layers
N +
N
P
emitter
base
collector
2
x
d
n
n
0
W
2
2
B
dx
L
B
L
D
B
B
B
 B : base recombination lifetime
D B : base minority carrier (electron)
diffusion constant
Boundary conditions :
n
 (0)
n
(
e
qV
/
k T
B E
1)
B 0
n
 (
W
)
n
(
e
qV
/
k T
B C
1)
 
n
0
B
B 0
B 0

### Slide 8-4

8.2
Collector Current
 W
sinh  
x 
B
 
L
qV
/
kT
B
n
 (
x
)
n
(
e
B E
1)
dn
B 0
sinh
W
/
L
I
A qD
B
B
C
E
B
n( x) / n(0)
n
dx
-------------
n  0
2
2
n i
qV BE
kT
n
-------e
n
 (

2
x
)
iB
– 1
(
e
qV
/
kT
BE
1)
D
n
N
qV
/
kT
1
B
N
B
iB
B E
A q
(
e
1)
B
E
W
N
B
B
I
I
(
e
qV
/
k T
B E
1)
C
S
It can be shown
2
qn
qV
/
kT
i
B E
I
A
(
e
1)
C
E
0
x/ x/ W B
1
G
B
W
2
B
n
 (
x
)
n
(0)(1
x
/
W
)
n
p
i
B
G
dx
B
2
2
n
D
n
B
iB
qV
/
kT
0
iB
(
e
BE
1)(1
x
/
W
)
B
N
G B (s·cm 4 ) is the base Gummel number
B

### Slide 8-5

8.2.1 High Level Injection Effect
•At low-level injection,
10
-2
I
kF
10
-4
•High-level injection effect :
10
-6
n  p  N
At large V BE,
B
n  p  n  p
10
-8
10
-10
np
n
2
e
q
(
E
E
) /
kT
n
2
e
qV
/
kT
Fn
Fp
BE
i
i
10
-12
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
n
p
n e
qV
/ 2
k T
B E
V
BE
i
G
p
n e
qV
/ 2
kT
B E
I
n e
qV
/ 2
k T
B
i
C 
B E
i
When p > N B , inverse slope is 120mV/decade.
I C ( A )

### Slide 8-6

8.3
Base Current
Some holes are injected from the P-type base into the N + emitter.
The holes are provided by the base current, I B .
(a )
contact
emitter
base
collector
contact
electron flow
I E
I C
hole flow
+
I B
n B '
p E '
(b)
W E
W B
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)
Slide 8-7
8.3
Base Current
(a )
contact
emitter
base
collector
contact
electron flow
I
E
I C
hole flow
+
I
B
2
qn
qV
/
kT
i
B E
For a uniform emitter,
I
A
(
e
1)
B
E
G
E
2
D n
W
qV
/
kT
2
E
I
A q
E
iE
(
e
BE
1)
n
n
B
E
i
W N
G
dx
E
E
E
2
n
D
0
iE
E
Is a large I B desirable? Why?

### Slide 8-8

8.4
Current Gain
Common-emitter current gain,  F :
I
C
F
I
Common-base current gain:
B
I
I
C
F
E
I
I
I
/
I
C
C
C
B
F
F
I
I
I
1
 I
/
I
1 
E
B
C
C
B
F
F
It can be shown that
F
1 
F
2
G
D W
N
n
E
B
E
E
iB
F
2
G
D W
N
n
B
E
B
B
iE
How can  F be maximized?

### Slide 8-9

EXAMPLE: Current Gain
A BJT has I C = 1 mA and I B = 10 mA. What are I E ,  F and  F ?
Solution:
I
I
I
1 mA
10 μA
1.01 mA
E
C
B
I
/
I
1 mA /10 μA
100
F
C
B
I
/
I
1 mA
/ 1.01 mA
0.9901
F
C
E
We can confirm
F
F
and
F
F
1 
1 
F
F

### Slide 8-10

8.4.1
Emitter Bandgap Narrowing
2
N
n
To raise  F , N E is typically very large.
 
E
iB
n
2
 n
2
2
N
n
B
iE
Unfortunately, large N E makes
(heavy doping effect).
iE
i
n
2
N
N
e
E
/
kT
g
i
C
V
Since n i is related to E g , this effect is
also known as band-gap
narrowing.
n
2
n e
2
E
/
kT
gE
iE
i
E gE is negligible for N E < 10 18 cm -3 ,
is 50 meV at 10 19 cm -3 , 95 meV at 10 20 cm -3 ,
and 140 meV at 10 21 cm -3 .
Emitter bandgap narrowing makes it difficult to raise  F by
doping the emitter very heavily.

### Slide 8-11

8.4.2
Narrow-Bandgap Base and Heterojuncion BJT
2
N
n
To further elevate  F , we can raise n iB by
 
E
iB
2
N
n
using an epitaxial Si 1-h Ge h base.
B
iE
With h = 0.2, E gB is reduced by 0.1eV and n iE 2 by 30x.

### Slide 8-12

EXAMPLE: Emitter Bandgap Narrowing and SiGe Base
Assume D B = 3D E , W E = 3W B , N B = 10 18 cm -3 , and n iB 2 = n i 2 . What is
 F for (a) N E = 10 19 cm -3 , (b) N E = 10 20 cm -3, and (c) N E = 10 20 cm -3
and a SiGe base with E gB = 60 meV ?
(a)
At N E = 10 19 cm -3 , E gE  50 meV,
n
2
n e
2
 E
/
kT
n e
2
50 meV/ 26 meV
n e
2
1.92
 6.8
n
2
gE
iE
i
i
i
i
2
19
2
D
W
N
n
9 10
 n
B
E
E
i
i
 13
F
D
W
N
n
2
10
18
6.8 n
2
E
B
B
iE
i
(b)
At N E = 10 20 cm -3 , E gE  95 meV
n
2
38
n
2
 24
iE
i
F
n
2
n e
2
 E
/
kT
n e
2
60 meV/ 26 meV
gB
 10
n
2
 237
(c)
iB
i
i
i
F

### Slide 8-13

8.4.3
Poly-Silicon Emitter
A high-performance BJT typically has a layer of As-doped N +
poly-silicon film in the emitter.
 F is larger due to the large W E , mostly made of the N + poly-
silicon. (A deep diffused emitter junction tends to cause emitter-
collector shorts.)
N + -poly-Si
emitter
SiO 2
P-base
N-collector
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)
Slide 8-14
8.4.4
Gummel Plot and  F Fall-off at High and Low I c
SCR BE current
From top to bottom:
V BC = 2V, 1V, 0V
Why does one want to operate BJTs at low I C and high I C ?
Why is  F a function of V BC in the right figure?
Hint: See Sec. 8.5 and Sec. 8.9.
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)
Slide 8-15
 F
8.5
Base-Width Modulation by Collector Voltage
Output resistance :
1
 I
V
C
A
r
0
 V
I
   
  
CE
C
I
I
C
B3
I
B2
Large V A (large r o )
is desirable for a
V A : Early Voltage
large voltage gain
I
B1
0
V CE
V A

### Slide 8-16

8.5
Base-Width Modulation by Collector Voltage
V BE
N +
P
N
V CE
emitter
base
collector
W B 3
W B 2
W B 1
}
V CE 1 < V CE 2 < V CE 3
n'
x
How can we reduce the base-width modulation effect?

### Slide 8-17

8.5
Base-Width Modulation by Collector Voltage
V BE
N +
P
N
The base-width modulation
effect is reduced if we
V CE
emitter
base
collector
W B3
}
W B2
(A)
Increase the base width,
V CE1 < V CE2 <V CE3
W B1
(B)
Increase the base doping
concentration, N B , or
n'
(C)
Decrease the collector doping
concentration, N C .
x
Which of the above is the most acceptable action?

### Slide 8-18

8.6
Ebers-Moll Model
I C
I B
active region
saturation
region
V CE
0
The Ebers-Moll model describes both the active
and the saturation regions of BJT operation.
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)
Slide 8-19
8.6
Ebers-Moll Model
I C is driven by two two forces, V BE and V BC .
V B E
V B C
When only V BE is present :
I B
qV
/
kT
B E
I
I
(
e
1)
C
S
I
S
qV
/
kT
B E
E
B
C
I
(
e
1)
B
F
I C
Now reverse the roles of emitter and collector.
When only V BC is present :
qV
/
kT
B C
I
I
(
e
1)
 R : reverse current gain
E
S
 F : forward current gain
I
qV
/
kT
S
B C
I
(
e
1)
B
R
1
qV
/
kT
B C
I
 
I
I
 
I
(1
)(
e
1)
C
E
B
S
R

### Slide 8-20

8.6
Ebers-Moll Model
In general, both V BE and V BC are present :
1
qV
/
kT
qV
/
kT
B E
BC
I
I
(
e
1)
I
(1
)(
e
1)
C
S
S
R
I
I
qV
/
kT
qV
/
kT
S
S
B E
BC
I
(
e
1)
(
e
1)
B
F
F
In saturation, the BC junction becomes forward-biased, too.
V BC causes a lot of holes to be injected
into the collector. This uses up much
of I B . As a result, I C drops.
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)
V CE (V)
Slide 8-21
8.7
Transit Time and Charge Storage
When the BE junction is forward-biased, excess holes are stored
in the emitter, the base, and even in the depletion layers.
Q F is all the stored excess hole charge
Q
F
F
I
C
 F is difficult to be predicted accurately but can be measured.
 F determines the high-frequency limit of BJT operation.

### Slide 8-22

8.7.1
Base Charge Storage and Base Transit Time
Let’s analyze the excess hole charge and transit time in
the base only.
Q
qA n
 (0)
W
/ 2
FB
E
B
2
Q
W
FB
B
FB
n  p
I
2 D
C
B
p' = n'
2
n
2
n (0)
iB
qV
/
kT 
n
 (
e
qV BE
BE
kT
1)
iB
 
n
0
=
N
-------
e
– 1
N
B
B
x
0
W B

### Slide 8-23

EXAMPLE: Base Transit Time
What is  FB if W B = 70 nm and D B = 10 cm 2 /s?
2
6
2
W
(7
10
cm)
 12
B
2.5
10
s
2.5 ps
FB
2
2 D
2
10 cm /s
B
2.5 ps is a very short time. Since light speed is
310 8 m/s, light travels only 1.5 mm in 5 ps.

### Slide 8-24

8.7.2
Drift Transistor–Built-in Base Field
The base transit time can be reduced by building into the base
a drift field that aids the flow of electrons. Two methods:
• Fixed E gB , N B decreases from emitter end to collector end.
B
E
-
C
E c
E f
E v
• Fixed N B , E gB decreases from emitter end to collector end.
E
-
B
C
1
dE
E 
c
E c
E f
q
dx
E v

### Slide 8-25

8.7.3
Emitter-to-Collector Transit Time and Kirk Effect
• To reduce the total transit time, emitter and depletion layers must be thin, too.
• Kirk effect or base widening: At high I C the base widens into the collector. Wider
base means larger  F .
Top to bottom :
V CE = 0.5V, 0.8V,
1.5V, 3V.

### Slide 8-26

Base Widening at Large I c
 E
N
N +
I
 A qnv
base
collector
collector
C
E
sat
 
qN
qn
C
x
I
C
base
depletion
qN
C
width
layer
A v
E
sat
 E
N
N +
dE
base
collector
collector
/
e
s
dx
x
“base depletion
width”
layer
Modern Semiconductor Devices for Integrated Circuits (C. Hu)
Slide 8-27
8.8
Small-Signal Model
B
C
I
I
e
qV
/
kT
B E
+
C
S
C
r 
v be
g m v be
Transconductance:
E
E
dI
d
qV
/
kT
C
B E
g
(
I
e
)
m
S
dV
dV
BE
BE
q
qV
/
kT
B E
I
e
I
/(
kT
/
q
)
S
C
kT
g
I
/(kT / q)
m
C
At 300 K, for example, g m =I C /26mV.

### Slide 8-28

8.8
Small-Signal Model
B
C
1
dI
1
dI
g
B
C
m
r
dV
dV
+
BE
F
BE
F
C
r 
v be
g m v be
r
/ g
F
m
E
E
dQ
d
C
F
I
g
F
C
F
m
dV
dV
BE
BE
This is the charge-storage capacitance, better known as the
diffusion capacitance.
Add the depletion-layer capacitance, C dBE :
C
 
g
 C
F
m
dBE

### Slide 8-29

EXAMPLE: Small-Signal Model Parameters
A BJT is biased at I C = 1 mA and V CE = 3 V.  F =90,  F =5 ps,
and T = 300 K. Find
(a) g m ,
(b) r  ,
(c) C  .
Solution:
1 mA
mA
g
I
/(
kT
/
q
) 
39
 39 mS
(milli siemens)
(a)
m
C
26 mV
V
90
(b)
r
/
g
 2.3 kΩ
F
m
39 mS
C
g
5
10
12
0.039
1.9
10
14
F
19 fF
(c)
F
m

### Slide 8-30

Once the model parameters are determined, one can analyze
circuits with arbitrary source and load impedances.
The parameters are routinely
determined through comprehensive
measurement of the BJT AC
and DC characteristics.

### Slide 8-31

8.9
Cutoff Frequency
B
C
+
Signal
1
C
r 
v be
source
g m v be
1 at f
T
-
2
 
(
 C
k T
/
qI
)
F
dBE
C
E
E
The load is a short circuit. The signal source is a current source,
i b , at frequency, f. At what frequency does the current gain
(
 i
/
i
c
b
) fall to unity?
C
 
g
 C
i
i
b
b
F
m
dBE
v
,
be
1/ r
j
C
i
g
v
c
m
be
i
g
1
c
m
 
(
) 
i
1/ r
j
C
1/
j

j
C
kT
/
qI
b
F
F
dBE
C

### Slide 8-32

8.9
Cutoff Frequency
f T = 1/2( F + C dBE kT/qI C )
f T is commonly used to compare the speed of transistors.
• Why does f T increase with increasing I C ?
• Why does f T fall at high I C ?

### Slide 8-33

BJT Structure for Minimum Parasitics and High Speed
• Poly-Si emitter
• Thin base
• Self-aligned poly-Si base contact
• Narrow emitter opening
• Lightly-doped collector
• Heavily-doped epitaxial subcollector
• Shallow trench and deep trench for electrical isolation

### Slide 8-34

8.10
Charge Control Model
Q
•For the DC condition,
I C (t) = Q F (t)/ F
I
I
/ 
F
B
C
F
F
F
•In order to sustain an excess hole charge in the transistor,
holes must be supplied through I B to susbtain recombination at
the above rate.
Q
/ 
•What if I B is larger than
F
F
F
?
dQ
Q
F
I
( ) 
t
F
B
dt
F
F
Step 1: Solve it for any given I B (t) to find Q F (t).
Step 2: Can then find I C (t) through I C (t) = Q F (t)/ F .

### Slide 8-35

Visualization of Q F (t)
(t )
I ( t)
B
I B
dQ
Q
F
F
I
( ) 
t
B
dt
F
F
Q F ( t )
Q
F
F
F
Q F / F  F

### Slide 8-36

EXAMPLE : Find I C (t) for a Step I B (t)
I
B
I C (t)
I B0
t
I B (t)
I
C (t)
t
dQ
Q
F
I
( ) 
t
F
The solution of
is
B
dt
n
F
F
 t /
E
B
C
Q
I
(1
e
F
F
)
F
F
F
B 0
t
 t /
I
( )
t
Q
( ) /
t
I
(1
e
F
F
)
C
F
F
F
B 0
I
() ?
Q
(0)?
Q
() ?
What is
B
F
F
Q F

### Slide 8-37

8.11 Model for Large-Signal Circuit Simulation
• Compact (SPICE) model contains dozens of parameters,
mostly determined from measured BJT data.
• Circuits containing tens of thousands of transistors can
be simulated.
C
• Compact model is a “contract” between
C CS
r C
device/manufacturing engineers and
circuit designers.
Q R
C
r B
BC
B
I C
Q F
C
BE
V
I
r E
qV
/
kT
qV
/
kT
qV
/
kT
I
I
(
e
CB
S
BE
e
BC
) 1
 
(
e
BC
1)
C
S
E
V
A
F

# •Current-dependent beta •Early effect •Transit times •Kirk effect • Voltage-dependent capacitances • Parasitic resistances •Other effects

### Slide 8-39

8.12
Chapter Summary
The base-emitter junction is usually forward-biased while
the base-collector is reverse-biased. V BE determines the
collector current, I C .
2
qn
qV
/
kT
i
B E
I
A
(
e
1)
C
E
G
B
W
2
B
n
p
i
G
dx
B
2
n
D
0
iB
B
G B is the base Gummel number, which represents all the
subtleties of BJT design that affect I C .

### Slide 8-40

8.12
Chapter Summary
The base (input) current, I B , is related to I C by the
common-emitter current gain,  F . This can be related to
the common-base current gain,  F .
I
G
I
C
F
C
E
F
F
I
G
I
1 
B
B
E
F
The Gummel plot shows that  F falls off in the high I C
region due to high-level injection in the base. It also falls
off in the low I C region due to excess base current.
Base-width modulation by V CB results in a significant slope
of the I C vs. V CE curve in the active region (known as the
Early effect).

### Slide 8-41

8.12
Chapter Summary
Due to the forward bias V BE , a BJT stores a certain amount
of excess carrier charge Q F which is proportional to I C .
Q
 I
F
C
F
 F is the forward transit time. If no excess carriers are stored
outside the base, then
2
W
 
B
, the base transit time.
F
FB
2 D
B
The charge-control model first calculates Q F (t) from I B (t)
and then calculates I C (t).
dQ
Q
F
I
( ) 
t
F
B
dt
F
F
I
(t)  Q
(t) / 
C
F
F

### Slide 8-42

8.12
Chapter Summary
The small-signal models employ parameters such as
transconductance,
dI
k T
g m 
C
I
/
C
dV
q
BE
input capacitance,
dQ
C
F
g
F
m
dV
BE
and input resistance.
dV
r
BE
/ g
F
m
dI
B