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Chapter 12, Part 1

Nervous Tissue
Overview of the Nervous
 The nervous system, along with the
endocrine system, helps to keep
controlled conditions within limits
that maintain health and helps to
maintain homeostasis.
 The nervous system is responsible for
all our behaviors, memories, and
 The branch of medical science that
deals with the normal functioning
Major Structures of the
Nervous System
Overview of Major
 Twelve pairs of cranial nerves.
 Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves emerge from the
spinal cord.
 Ganglia, located outside the brain and spinal cord,
are small masses of nervous tissue, containing
primarily cell bodies of neurons.
 Enteric plexuses help regulate the digestive
 Sensory receptors are either parts of neurons or
specialized cells that monitor changes in the
internal or external environment.
Functions of Nervous
 Sensory function: to sense changes in the
internal and external environment through
sensory receptors.
 Sensory (afferent) neurons serve this function.
 Integrative function: to analyze the sensory
information, store some aspects, and make
decisions regarding appropriate behaviors.
 Association or interneurons serve this function.
 Motor function is to respond to stimuli by
initiating action.
 Motor(efferent) neurons serve this function.
Nervous System
 Central nervous system (CNS)
 consists of the brain and spinal cord
 Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
 consists of cranial and spinal nerves that
contain both sensory and motor fibers
 connects CNS to muscles, glands & all
sensory receptors
Structure of a Multipolar
Histology of the Nervous
System: Neurons
 Functional unit of nervous system
 Have capacity to produce action potentials
 electrical excitability
 Cell body
 single nucleus with prominent nucleolus
 Nissl bodies (chromatophilic substance)
rough ER & free ribosomes for protein synthesis
 neurofilaments give cell shape and support
 microtubules move material inside cell
 lipofuscin pigment clumps (harmless aging)
 Cell processes = dendrites & axons
Structural Classification of
Sensory receptors that are
dendrites of unipolar neurons
CNS Neurons
Axonal Transport

 Cell body is location for most protein

 neurotransmitters & repair proteins
 Axonal transport system moves substances
 slow axonal flow
movement in one direction only -- away from cell body
movement at 1-5 mm per day
 fast axonal flow
moves organelles & materials along surface of
at 200-400 mm per day
transports in either direction
for use or for recycling in cell body
Neuroglia of the CNS

 Most common
glial cell type
 oligodendrocyte
forms myelin
sheath around
more than one
axons in CNS
 Analogous to
Schwann cells of
Neuroglia of the PNS

 Schwann cells encircling PNS axons

 Each cell
produces part of the myelin
sheath surrounding an axon in the PNS
Myelinated and
unmyelinated axons
Organization of the
Nervous System
Subdivisions of the PNS

 Somatic (voluntary) nervous system (SNS)

 neurons from cutaneous and special sensory receptors to
the CNS
 motor neurons to skeletal muscle tissue

 Autonomic (involuntary) nervous systems

 sensory neurons from visceral organs to CNS
 motor neurons to smooth & cardiac muscle and glands
sympathetic division (speeds up heart rate)
parasympathetic division (slow down heart rate)
 Enteric nervous system (ENS)
 involuntary sensory & motor neurons control GI tract
 neurons function independently of ANS & CNS
Electrical Signals in
 Neurons are electrically excitable due
to the voltage difference across their
 Communicate with 2 types of electric
 action potentials that can travel long
 graded potentials that are local
membrane changes only
 In living cells, a flow of ions occurs
Overview of Nervous System
Types of Ion Channels

 Leakage (nongated) channels are always

 nerve cells have more K+ than Na+ leakage
 as a result, membrane permeability to K+ is higher
 explains resting membrane potential of -70mV in
nerve tissue
 Ligand-gated channels open and close in
response to a stimulus
 results in neuron excitability
 Voltage-gated channels respond to a direct
change in the membrane potential.
 Mechanically gated ion channels respond
to mechanical vibration or pressure.
Ion channels in plasma
Resting Membrane
 Negative ions along inside of cell membrane
& positive ions along outside
 potential energy difference at rest is -70 mV
 cell is “polarized”
 Resting potential exists because
 concentration of ions different inside & outside
extracellular fluid rich in Na+ and Cl
cytosol full of K+, organic phosphate & amino
 membrane permeability differs for Na+ and K+
50-100 greater permeability for K+
inward flow of Na+ can’t keep up with
outward flow of K+
Na+/K+ pump removes Na+ as fast as it leaks
Resting Membrane
Factors that contribute to
resting membrane potential
Graded Potentials

 Small deviations from resting potential of

 hyperpolarization = membrane has become more
 depolarization = membrane has become more

 The signals are graded, meaning they vary in

amplitude (size), depending on the strength
of the stimulus and localized.
 Graded potentials occur most often in the
dendrites and cell body of a neuron.
Graded Potential
Graded potentials in response to
opening mechanically-gated
channels or ligand-gated
Stimulus strength and
graded potentials
Generation of Action
 An action potential (AP) or impulse is a
sequence of rapidly occurring events that
decrease and eventually reverse the
membrane potential (depolarization) and then
restore it to the resting state (repolarization).
 During an action potential, voltage-gated Na+ and
K+ channels open in sequence.
 According to the all-or-none principle, if a stimulus
reaches threshold, the action potential is always the
 A stronger stimulus will not cause a larger impulse.
Action Potentials
Stimulus strength and Action
Potential generation
Changes in ion flow during
depolarizing and repolarizing
phases of Action Potential
Refractory period

 Period of time during which

neuron can not generate
another action potential
 Absolute refractory period
 even very strong stimulus will
not begin another AP
 inactivated Na+ channels must return to the resting
state before they can be reopened
 large fibers have absolute refractory period of 0.4
msec and up to 1000 impulses per second are
 Relative refractory period
 a suprathreshold stimulus will be able to start an AP
 K+ channels are still open, but Na+ channels have
End of Chapter 12, Part