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Earth Fault protection

Power Transmission and Distribution

Siemens AG 2006

7SA522 High Resistance Earth Fault Protection: Features


Earth (zero sequence) current protection, 4 stages 1 and 3 pole tripping with special phase selectors

3 definite-time stages
1 inverse-time stage: IEC, logarithmic inverse or ANSI characteristic this stage can also be used as a 4th definite-time stage Directional determination with 3V0 and/or Ipol of an earthed power transformer Directional determination with V2 and I2 (negative sequence) Sensitive 3I0-measurement with a pick-up range: 0.005 A to 100 x In Elimination of higher harmonics with special digital filters Inrush-stabilisation with I0/100Hz Teleprotection: Directional comparison, Blocking or Unblocking Operation with weak infeed trip and echo Instantaneous trip after switch-onto-fault
Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution

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TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection

Example: Single phase fault with infeed from 2 sides

IL1

IL2 IL3

Zf IE

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TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection

Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution

Symmetrical Component representation: L1-E Fault


I1A I1B

A Pos. Seq.

I2A Neg. Seq. U2A

I2B U2B

3x RFault

I0A Zero Seq. U0A

I0B U0B

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TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection

Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution

Polarizing Options for Directional Earth Fault Relays

*)

I0P
*)

U0P U2P

I0L, I2L

not needed for numerical relays, U0P may also be internally calculated

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TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection

Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution

Directional Characteristic (U0 and IY)

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TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection

Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution

7SA522 High Resistance Earth Fault Protection: functional diagram


Earth fault direction Inrushstabilisation
>EF Trip rel.

SOTF

EF IE> Echo EF Fault Det.

Teleprotection

P P

Direc. 3I0>>> 3I0>>>

= & &
T

EF>>> Trip

>EF>>> block

3I0>>> Def. Time Stage 3I0>> Def. Time Stage 3I0> Def. Time Stage

P Direc. 3I0p P 3I0p

= &
P3146 AddTdelay
T(3I0/IN)

&
EFp Trip

T >EFp block

Inverse Time Stage


= Input signal (binary input) P = Parameter = Output Signal (alarm, command)

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TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection

Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution

7SA522 - Directional earth fault protection: Settings

General settings:

Settings for direction:

Settings of the stages:

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TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection

Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution

Principle of phase selection logic with U and I - Example L1-E

UL1E < 0.6 UNOM

&

UL2E > 0.7 UNOM


UL3E > 0.7 UNOM OR

Select L1-E with U / I

IL1E > 2 INOM IL2E < 1.2 INOM &

IL3E < 1.2 INOM


If selection with U / I is not successful (U too large or I too small) then symmetrical component method is used
Page 9 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution

Phase Selection Logic - Sequence Components

Angle difference I2/I0 -60 .. 60 60 .. 180 180 .. 300

Faulty Phase L1-E L3-E L2-E

I2 = a*I0 L3-E

L1-E I2 = I0 L2-E

I2 = a2*I0

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TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection

Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution

DEF protection, Critical application issues

U0P or U2P may fall below critical value (approx. 1 V secondary) and limit relay high resistance earth fault sensitivity Zero or negative sequence sources to be available behind relay location Minimum settings at least > 3 times VT and CT inaccuracies Current setting above line unsymmetry (M0 = Z01/Z0 or M2 = Z21/Z1) (series compensated lines require higher current setting due to possibility of unsymmetrical gap flashover) Separate current threshold setting for tele-protection : 3I0<Min Teleprot Inhibits echo send / releases block signal send Must be set to consider capacitive charging currents Teed load on line may reduce I2 at relay location Teed earthed transformer may reduce I0 at relay location DEF should be blocked during 1-pole ARC dead time Pick-up threshold biasing by Iph > to avoid false operation with CT saturation
Page 11 TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution

7SA522 - Earth fault protection Directional comparison teleprotection scheme

E/F. frwd.

&

TS

transm.

transm

TS

&

E/F. frwd.

&

trip

trip

&

rec.

rec.

TS
*Three-terminal schemes are supported as well

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TLQ 2004 Distance Protection -Earth Fault Protection

Siemens AG 2006 Power Transmission and Distribution