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Client Concept

Business Example: As an SAP system administrator or project team leader, you must monitor software configuration and program code changes to protect your production system from incorrect configur ation settings or program bugs. Data in an SAP System : Data in an SAP system can be divided into two categories: client-specific data and cross-client data. 1. Client-specific data, such as user master and application data, which affects only one client. 2. Cross-client data, such as crossclient customizing data and all Repository objects, which affects the whole system environment.

The ABAP Dictionary is a data dictionary that is part of the ABAP Repository.

Clients in an SAP System


A client is a self-contained unit in commercial, organizational, and technical terms, with its own user master data and set of table key ranges.
Data from different clients is kept separate at the kernel level. SQL statements executed by an SAP application use the client number in the where-clause. Although a table may contain data from several different clients, the where-clause limits access to particular clients.

1. 2. 3.

The following are examples of client-specific data: User master data, such as parameters, authorization, user groups Customizing data, such as organizational units, assignments, and document types Application data, such as business transaction data, and material master data The SAP client concept can integrate several companies or subsidiaries in a single client by using company codes and the SAP authorization concept. Company codes define the smallest corporate organizational units for which a complete self-contained set of accounts can be drawn up for external reporting. The SAP authorization concept enables the parent company to access all subsidiaries for report purposes, while subsidiary-specific data is protected against access from other subsidiaries through company code definition.

Standard Client Roles


The standard client roles fulfill the optimal minimum requirements of your SAP system.

Standard Client Roles

Client CUST, development and customizing, is the central customizing client where complete adaptation of the SAP system to customer-specific needs takes place. All changes performed in this client are recorded so they can be supplied to the other clients using the Transport Management System (TMS).
Client QTST, quality assurance, is used to test and verify the new customizing settings in the application. Client PROD or production is the client for production activities, that is, where your company.s business is carried out. Customizing changes imported into this client have to be first tested carefully in the QTST client in order to ensure that production operation is free of disruption.

Additional clients within a system landscape may include:

Additional Client Roles

1. A sandbox client to experiment with transactions and settings. 2. A test client to verify customizing changes against sample data in a more stable environment. This can be done by .copying. customizing settings from the customizing client to the sandbox client. This is called a unit test. 3. An end-user training environment. 4. A client that satisfies customerspecific requirements.

System and Client Change Options


Business Example : As a transport administrator, you need to set the correct system change options for each SAP system and the correct client change options for all clients.

System Change Options


The system change option defines whether or not Repository objects and client-independent customizing objects are globally modifiable. If they are globally modifiable, you can specify whether or not each software component or namespace can be modified. To reach the system change option use transaction SE06 and choose System Change Option. A software component is a set of dedicated development classes. For the software components, there are four different possible settings: 1. Modifiable 2. Restricted modifiability (can only create objects as non-originals) 3. Notmodifiable; enhanceable only (changes not allowed; objects can be enhanced using the Enhancement Framework only) 4. Not modifiable; not enhanceable (changes and enhancements not allowed)

You can reserve namespaces for software developed by SAP customers and partners. These namespaces are designed for large-scale customer enhancements as well as add-ons developed by partners.

Client Change Options


Client change options that are found in the clients master table T000, can be maintained by using transaction SCC4. The two settings that must be maintained to implement controls on where changes are made and enforce the changes being recorded to change requests are: 1. 2. Changes and transports for clientspecific objects Cross-client object changes

Changes and transports for clientspecific objects


Changes without automatic recording : This flag means that changes in the Customizing settings of the client are permitted. The changes are not automatically recorded in a change request. Automatic recording of changes: This flag means that changes are permitted in the customizing settings of the client and all the changes are automatically recorded in a change request. No changes allowed: This flag means that changes in the customizing settings of the client are not permitted (client lock). Changes w/o automatic recording, no transports allowed: This flag means that changes are permitted in the customizing settings of the client. The changes are not automatically recorded in a change request, however. No manual transport of Customizing settings from the client is possible. This variant can be used for pure test clients.

Cross-client object changes


This feature controls in which clients you are allowed to maintain cross-client objects.

Changes to repository and cross-client customizing allowed : There are no restrictions on the maintenance of cross-client objects for the client when this setting is used. Both cross-client Customizing objects and objects of the SAP Repository can be maintained. Use in customizing/development client only No changes to cross-client customizing objects : Cross-client Customizing objects cannot be maintained in the client with this setting. Only use this if development client is separate from customizing client
No changes to repository objects : With this setting, objects of the SAP Repository cannot be maintained in the client. Only use this if customizing client is separate from development client. No changes to repository and cross-client customizing objects: Combination of both restrictions: Neither cross-client Customizing objects nor objects of the SAP Repository can be maintained in the client. Use this in every client in the landscape except customizing/development client(s)

New client creation T_code SCC4

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Once a new client is created we can log in to it by SAP* user with password pass,which defaultly comes as client is created.

The new client does not contain any client-specific data,and in particular it contains no user data.
Now we do a client copy to get the necessary data to achieve its operability.

Client copies are of three different types,


1) Local client copy(SCCL). (within the same system) 2) Remote client copy(SCC9). (between the different systems, by RFC) 3) client Export(SCC8/ImportSCC7. (between the different systems, by TMS)(Client export and Import)

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Local client copy T_code SCCL

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Remote copy T_code SCC9

A client can only be copied cross-system if both R/3 system are of the same release. An RFC connection is used as an interface between the R/3 systems.

In a remote client copy,only table data is moved and not table definition.
A remote client copy run is the same as a local copy run with regard to both the execution alternatives and the options available.

In any case, a remote copy process is bound to be slower than a local copy .

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Client transport SCC8

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Client transport import T_code SCC7 in target system

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Client Transport within the same system SCC1


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Client copy and client Transport Monitoring SCC3


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Deleting a Client SCC5

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THANK YOU

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