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# CHAIN DRIVES

Sprocket wheel
Chain drives are used to transmit motion or power from one shaft to another
when the centre distance between shafts is short such as bicycles, motor cycles,
agricultural machinery, rolling mills etc.
Chain drive consists of an endless chain wrapped around two sprockets as
shown Fig.
The chain consists of a number of links connected by pin joints, while the
sprockets are toothed wheels with a special profile for teeth.

CLASSIFICATION OF CHAINS

Hoisting chains : These chains are used for hoisting purpose
at max. velocity of 0.25m/sec

Conveyor chains : These chains are used for elevating and conveying the
materials continuously at a speed of 2m/sec.

Power transmission chains: These chains are used for transmission of
power when the distance between the centers of shafts is short.

As no slip takes place during chain drive, perfect velocity ratio is obtained.
It may be used for both long as well as short distances.
It gives high transmission efficiency.
It transmits more power than belts
It can be operated under adverse temperature and atmospheric conditions

The production cost of chains is relatively high
The chain drive needs careful maintenance, particularly lubrication and

Bushings
Roller
Pin
Fig. Construction of a roller chain
C
r

p
Fig. Chain drive system
Let
T= No. of teeth on a sprocket
= angle subtended by chord of a link at the centre of sprocket
R, r = radii of pitch circles of the two sprockets having T and t teeth respectively
L = length of the chain
C = centre distance between sprockets = k p
p = pitch of the chain

r
p
2 sin
2
p r

=
Then
0
1 360
2 sin
2
r
T
| |
=
|
\ .
0
180
2 sin r
T
=
0
180
2sin
p
r
T
=
0
180
cos
2
p
ec
T
=
( )
( )
2
2
R r
L R r C
C
t
+
= + + +
(1)
The first term in the equation is half the sum of the circumference of
pitch circles. In case of chain drives it will be
2
pT pt +
Replacing R and r in the second term
0
180
cos
2
p
R ec
T
=
0
180
cos
2
p
r ec
t
=
2
0 0
180 180
cos cos
2 2
2
2
p p
ec ec
T t pT pt
L kp
kp
| |

|
+
\ .
= + +
0 0
2
180 180
cos cos
2
2 4
ec ec
T t
T t
L p k
k
(
| |
(

|
|
(
+
\ .
= + +
(
(
(

(2)