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Chapter 2

Financial Statements, Cash Flow, and Taxes

Topics in Chapter

Income statement Balance sheet Statement of cash flows Free cash flow MVA and EVA Corporate taxes Personal taxes
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How can Financial Statements be used to increase value or make $ in Business


Use to evaluate investment opportunities 1. Internal - From within company

i.e.: investments in PPE to increase FCFs & value To make informed investment decisions into specific companies

2. External:

Determinants of Intrinsic Value: Calculating FCF


Sales revenues Operating costs and taxes Required investments in operating capital =

Free cash flow (FCF)

Value =

FCF1 FCF2 FCF ... + + + (1 + WACC)1 (1 + WACC)2 (1 + WACC)

Weighted average cost of capital (WACC)

Market interest rates


Market risk aversion

Cost of debt Cost of equity

Firms debt/equity mix


Firms business risk
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Income Statement
Revenue (Sales) -Costs (COGS) -Operating exp - Deprec. exp =EBIT
Earnings b/4 interest & Taxes Earnings b/4 taxes Tax Expense Profit Op Income b/4 taxes Taxable Income

-Int. expense =EBT


-Taxes = Net Income NI / #shs c. stk

=EPS

Earning per share

Statement of Retained Earnings


Beginning RE + NI

-Divids
Ending RE

Divids / #shs c. stk

=DPS

Difference b/w Interest Expense & Revenue


Int. Exp from borrowing vs. Int. Revenue from Lending Rev -CGS -Exp =EBIT -Interest =EBT -Taxes =NI

Balance Sheet
ASSETS= LIABILITIES
Current Assets
Cash Accounts Receivable

+ OWNERS EQUITY

Current Liabilities
Accounts Payable Common Stock

Inventory
Prepaids

Accruals (other s/t payables)


S/T Notes Payable

Addtl Paid-in-Cap
Prfd. Stock

Marketable Securities

Retained Earnings

Non-Current Assets Non-Current Liabilities


Property Plant Equipment N/P Mortgage Payable Bonds Payable
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-Accum Deprec

Income Statement
2010
Sales COGS $3,432,000 2,864,000

2011
$5,834,400 4,980,000

Other expenses
Deprec. Tot. op. costs EBIT Int. expense

340,000
18,900 3,222,900 209,100 62,500

720,000
116,960 5,816,960 17,440 176,000

EBT
Taxes (40%) Net income $

146,600
58,640 87,960

(158,560)
(63,424) ($ 95,136)
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What happened to sales and net income?


Sales increased by over $2.4 million. Costs shot up by more than sales. Net income was negative. However, the firm received a tax refund since it paid taxes of more than $63,424 during the past two years.

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Balance Sheet: Assets


2010 Cash S-T invest. AR Inventories Total CA Gross FA $ 9,000 48,600 351,200 715,200 1,124,000 491,000 $ 2011 7,282 20,000 632,160 1,287,360 1,946,802 1,202,950

Less: Depr. Net FA Total assets

146,200 344,800 $1,468,800

263,160 939,790 $2,886,592 11

Effect of Expansion on Assets


Net fixed assets almost tripled in size. AR and inventory almost doubled. Cash and short-term investments fell.

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Balance Sheet: Liabilities & Equity


2010 Accts. payable Notes payable Accruals Total CL Long-term debt Common stock $ 145,600 200,000 136,000 481,600 323,432 460,000 2011 $ 324,000 720,000 284,960 1,328,960 1,000,000 460,000

Ret. earnings Total equity Total L&E

203,768 663,768 $1,468,800

97,632 557,632 $2,886,592 13

What effect did the expansion have on liabilities & equity?

CL increased as creditors and suppliers financed part of the expansion. Long-term debt increased to help finance the expansion. The company didnt issue any stock. Retained earnings fell, due to the years negative net income and dividend payment.
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I/S:
Revenue (Sales) -Operating exp - Deprec. exp =NI Revenue (Sales) -Operating exp - Deprec. exp

Accrual vs. Cash Basis


Accrual
$100 -20 -10 $70 $100 -20 -10 $70 (Cash sales) (cash exp) (non-cash exp) (Credit sales) (cash exp) (non-cash exp)

Cash
$0 -20 0 <$20> cash basis
$100

-20 0

=NI

$80 Net Cash flow

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OR: for 2nd case


Revenue (Sales) -Operating exp - Deprec. exp =NI
+Deprec Exp (noncash) $100
-

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- 10 70 + 10 $80

=Net Cash Flow

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Statement of Cash Flows: 2011


Operating Activities Net Income Adjustments: Depreciation Change in AR Change in inventories Change in AP Change in accruals Net cash provided (used) by ops. ($ 95,136) 116,960 (280,960) (572,160) 178,400 148,960 ($503,936) 17

Stmt of CFs Investing Activities


Investing Activities Cash used to acquire FA Change in S-T invest. Net cash prov. (used) by inv. act.

($711,950) 28,600 ($683,350)

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Stmt of CFs Financing Activities


Financing Activities Change in notes payable $ 520,000 Change in long-term debt 676,568 Payment of cash dividends (11,000) Net cash provided (used) by fin. act. $1,185,568

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Summary of Statement of CF
Net cash provided (used) by ops. Net cash to acquire FA Net cash prov. (used) by fin. act. Net change in cash Cash at beginning of year Cash at end of year $ ($ 503,936) (683,350) 1,185,568 (1,718) 9,000 7,282
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What can you conclude from the statement of cash flows?

Net CF from operations = -$503,936, because of negative net income and increases in working capital. The firm spent $711,950 on FA. The firm borrowed heavily and sold some short-term investments to meet its cash requirements. Even after borrowing, the cash account fell by $1,718.
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What is free cash flow (FCF)? Why is it important?

FCF is the amount of cash available from operations for distribution to all investors (including stockholders and debtholders) after making the necessary investments to support operations. A companys value depends on the amount of FCF it can generate.
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What are the five uses of FCF?


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Pay interest on debt. Pay back principal on debt. Pay dividends. Buy back stock. Buy nonoperating assets (e.g., marketable securities, investments in other companies, etc.)
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Free cash flows (FCFs)

FCF= cash available for distribution to investors. Greater the FCF, more attractive that company is to investors. Therefore, value of the firm is primarily dependent on its expected future free cash flows!

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One More IMPORTANT Step

Value of any business asset, financial or real depends on usable, after-tax cash flows the asset is expected to produce.

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Calculating Free Cash Flow in 5 Easy Steps


Step 1 Step 2

Earning before interest and taxes X (1 Tax rate) Net operating profit after taxes

Operating current assets Operating current liabilities Net operating working capital
Step 3

Net operating working capital

Operating long-term assets Total net operating capital

Step 5 Step 4

Net operating profit after taxes Net investment in operating capital

Total net operating capital this year Total net operating capital last year Net investment in operating capital
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Free cash flow

FREE CASH FLOWS (FCF)


FCF = Net Operating Profit A/Tax Change in Outlay for Operating Capital from prior year to current year. OR: FCF = NOPAT Net Investment in Op. Capital

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Net Operating Profit After Taxes (NOPAT)


Revenue (Sales)
-Op exp incl CGS =EBIT -Taxes =NOPAT
OR Earnings b/4 interest & taxes Op Income b/4 taxes Tax Expense

NOPAT= EBIT(1-tax rate)

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Net Operating Working Capital (NOWC)


Difference in C/A & C/L used to operate business. NOWC = CA CL NOWC= (cash+A/R+Inv) - (A/P + Accruals)
All non-interest bearing CA & CL

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Total Operating Capital =


= NOWC + Net Plant & Equip. = S/T Op Cap + L/T Op Cap = Fixed Assets - Accum. Deprec =Net Fixed Assets

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Net Operating Profit after Taxes (NOPAT)


NOPAT = EBIT(1 - Tax rate) NOPAT11 = $17,440(1 - 0.4)

= $10,464. NOPAT10 = $125,460.


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What are operating current assets?

Operating current assets are the CA needed to support operations.

Op CA include: cash, inventory, receivables. Op CA exclude: short-term investments, because these are not a part of operations.

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What are operating current liabilities?

Operating current liabilities are the CL resulting as a normal part of operations.

Op CL include: accounts payable and accruals. Op CL exclude: notes payable, because this is a source of financing, not a part of operations.

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Net Operating Working Capital (NOWC)


NOWC
NOWC11

Operating CA

Operating CL

NOWC10

= ($7,282 + $632,160 + $1,287,360) - ($324,000 + $284,960) = $1,317,842. = $793,800.

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Total net operating capital (also called operating capital)

Operating Capital= NOWC + Net fixed assets. Operating Capital 2011 = $1,317,842 + $939,790 = $2,257,632. Operating Capital 2010 = $1,138,600.

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Free Cash Flow (FCF) for 2011


FCF = NOPAT - Net investment in operating capital = $10,464 - ($2,257,632 - $1,138,600) = $10,464 - $1,119,032 = -$1,108,568. How do you suppose investors reacted?
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Uses of FCF
After-tax interest payment =
Payment of dividends = Repurchase (Issue) stock = Purch. (Sale) of ST investments =

$105,600
$11,000 $0 $28,600

Reduction (increase) in debt = $1,196,568

Total uses of FCF = $1,108,568


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Return on Invested Capital (ROIC)


ROIC = NOPAT / operating capital ROIC11 = $10,464 / $2,257,632 = 0.5%.
ROIC10 = $125,460 / $1,138,600 =11.0%.
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The firms cost of capital is 10%. Did the growth add value?

No. The ROIC of 0.5% is less than the WACC of 10%. Investors did not get the return they require. Note: High growth usually causes negative FCF (due to investment in capital), but thats ok if ROIC > WACC. For example, in 2008 Qualcomm had high growth, negative FCF, but a high ROIC.
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Economic Value Added (EVA)


= Estimate of businesss true economic profit for yr., which differs from acctg income. EVA = residual income that remains after cost of all capital (incl. equity capital) has been deducted from Net Operating Profit After-Tax (NOPAT), whereas, Acctg Income does not consider cost of equity capital, only debt.
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Economic Value Added (EVA) =


= NOPAT- (After-tax Cost of Capital) = NOPAT- ($ Total Op. Cap)(% Cost of Captl) = NOPAT ($ Op. Cap)(WACC)

Where WACC is wtd. ave. cost of capital

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Economic Value Added (EVA)


EVA = NOPAT- (After-tax Cost of Capital) EVA = NOPAT- (Total Capital)(WACC)

Where WACC is wtd. ave. cost of capital

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Economic Value Added (WACC = 10% for both years)


EVA EVA11 = NOPAT- (WACC)($ Op.Capital) = $10,464 - (0.1)($2,257,632)

= $10,464 - $225,763
= -$215,299. EVA10 = $125,460 - (0.10)($1,138,600)

= $125,460 - $113,860
= $11,600.
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Stock Price and Other Data


2010 Stock price # of shares EPS=NI / (# shs o/s) DPS=Divs / (# shs o/s) $8.50 100,000 $0.88 $0.22 2011 $6.00 100,000 -$0.95 $0.11

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Market Value Added (MVA)

MVA = Market Value of the Firm - Book Value of the Firm Market Value = (# shares of stock)(price per share) + Value of debt Book Value = Total common equity + Value of debt
(More)
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Market Value Added (MVA)

MVA =Difference between market value of a firms stock and the amount of Equity capital supplied by Shareholders. Greater the MVA, greater the value generated for stockholders. MVA=Market Value of Equity - Book Value of Equity MV reflects future profitability, while BV represents historical cost 46

MVA (Continued)

If the market value of debt is close to the book value of debt, then MVA is:

MVA = Market value of equity book value of equity

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2011 MVA (Assume market value of debt = book value of debt.)

Market Value of Equity 2011:

(100,000)($6.00) = $600,000.

Book Value of Equity 2011:

$557,632.

MVA11 = $600,000 - $557,632 = $42,368. MVA10 = $850,000 - $663,768 = $186,232.


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Key Features of the Tax Code


Corporate Taxes Individual Taxes

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2009 Corporate Tax Rates


Taxable Income 0 -50,000 50,000 - 75,000 75,000 - 100,000 100,000 - 335,000 Tax on Base 0 7,500 13,750 22,250 Rate on amount above base 15% 25% 34% 39%

335,000 - 10M 10M - 15M 15M - 18.3M 18.3M and up

113,900 3,400,000 5,150,000 6,416,667

34% 35% 38% 35%


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Features of Corporate Taxation

Progressive rate up until $18.3 million taxable income.

Below $18.3 million, the marginal rate is not equal to the average rate. Above $18.3 million, the marginal rate and the average rate are 35%.

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Features of Corporate Taxes (Cont.)

A corporation can:

deduct its interest expenses but not its dividend payments; carry back losses for two years, carry forward losses for 20 years.* exclude 70% of dividend income if it owns less than 20% of the companys stock

*Losses in 2001 and 2002 can be carried back for five years.

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Example

Assume a corporation has $100,000 of taxable income from operations, $5,000 of interest income, and $10,000 of dividend income. What is its tax liability?

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Example (Continued)
Operating income Interest income Taxable dividend income Taxable income

$100,000 5,000
3,000* $108,000

*Dividends - Exclusion = $10,000 - 0.7($10,000) = $3,000. 54

Example (Continued)
Taxable Income = $108,000 Tax on base = $22,250 Amount over base = $108,000 - $100,000 = $8,000 Tax = $22,250 + 0.39 ($8,000) = $25,370.
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Key Features of Individual Taxation


Individuals face progressive tax rates, from 10% to 35%. The rate on long-term (i.e., more than one year) capital gains is 15%. But capital gains are only taxed if you sell the asset. Dividends are taxed at the same rate as capital gains. Interest on municipal (i.e., state and local government) bonds is not subject to Federal taxation.
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Taxable versus Tax Exempt Bonds

State and local government bonds (municipals, or munis) are generally exempt from federal taxes.

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ExxonMobil bonds at 10% versus California muni bonds at 7%


T = Tax rate = 25.0%. After-tax interest rate (%): ExxonMobil = 10%(1-.25) = 7.5% CAL = 7%(1 - 0) = 7% Better off investing where?
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ExxonMobil bonds at 10% versus California muni bonds at 7%


T = Tax rate = 25.0%. After-tax interest income ($ basis): ExxonMobil = 0.10($5,000) 0.10($5,000)(0.25) ExxonMobil = 0.10($5,000)(0.75) = $375. CAL = 0.07($5,000) - 0 = $350.
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Breakeven Tax Rate

At what tax rate would you be indifferent between the muni and the corporate bonds? Solve for T in this equation: Muni yield = Corp Yield(1-T) 7.00% = 10.0%(1-T) T = 30.0%.
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Implications

If T > 30%, buy tax exempt munis. If T < 30%, buy corporate bonds. Only high income, and hence high tax bracket, individuals should buy munis.

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