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Part 1

Introduction To Bridge Design

How Do Bridge Engineers Decide On What Type Of Bridge To Build?


Bridge Survey flood plain cross sections inspection reports existing bridge (scour, etc) water elevations photos existing roadway profile Geotechnical Report soil / geological formations slopes and grading foundation problems soil prop.s - phi angles etc Factors affecting choice of superstructure location, city or rural span length vertical clearance maintainability environmental concerns transportation to site issues cost Factors affecting choice of substructure location and geometry subsoil conditions height of column

Bridge Design Process


Preliminary Design Process Final Design Process

Bridge Survey Geotechnical Report 1. Determine the most economical type structure and span arrangement 2. Hydraulic Analysis 3. Preliminary Cost Estimate 4. Foundation Borings 5. Determine Foundation Type

Top to Bottom Design (twice) Design methods per AASHTO and MoDOT Bridge Manual Analysis via computations spreadsheets computer programs Detail plans are produced by technicians (Micro-Station) Plans are checked Quantities computed Special Provisions written Plans are advertised for bidding Low Bid Contractor builds the bridge
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Types of Superstructures
Bridges are often referred to by their superstructure types. The superstructure system of members carry the roadway over a crossing and transfer load to a substructure. Superstructures are categorized by; Support type (simply supported or continuous) Design type (slab on stringer, slab, arch. Rigid frame, etc) Material type (steel, concrete, timber)

Slab on Stringer Bridges


Most common type of bridge in Missouri.
Consist of a deck, resting on the girders. The deck distributes the loads transversely to the girders. The girders carry the loads longitudinally (down the length of the bridge) to the supports, (abutments and intermediate bents). Concrete Deck Girder Prestressed I Girder Prestressed Double Tee Prestressed Box
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Steel
Plate Girder Wide Flange

Steel Box Girder

Prestressed Girders
I - GIRDER

BULB TEE

Prestressed Concrete I-Girder

Prestressed Concrete I-Girder Bridge

Prestressed Concrete Panels

Prestressed Double Tee Girders

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Steel Plate Girder / Wide Flange Beam / Box Beam

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Steel Plate Girder Bridge

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Slab Bridges
In slab bridges the deck itself is the structural frame or the entire deck is a thin beam acting entirely as one primary member. These types are used where depth of structure is a critical factor.
Typical Slab Bridges : Concrete Box Culverts Solid Slabs Voided Slabs

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Triple Box Culvert

Box 14 Culvert

Voided Slab Bridge

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Voided Slab Bridge

Solid Slab

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Substructures
The substructure transfers the superstructure loads to the foundations. End Abutments
Integral Abutment - girders on beam supported by piles, girders concreted into the diaphragm Non-Integral Abutment - diaphragms of steel cross-frames, uses expansion devices Semi-Deep Abutment - used when spanning divided highways to help shorten span Open C.C. Abutment - beam supported by columns and footings, rarely used

Intermediate bents
Open Concrete Bent - beams supported by columns and footings (or drilled shafts) either a concrete diaphragm (Pre-Stressed Girder) or steel diaphragm (Plate Girder) This is the most common type of Pier MoDOT uses. Pile Cap Bent - beams supported by piling (HP or C.I.P.) and are used when the column height is less than 15 feet and usually in rural areas. Hammer Head Bent - single oval or rectangular column and footing. Spread footings - are used when rock or soil can support the structure. Pile footings - rectangular c.c. supported by HP or Cast in Place piles Drilled Shafts - holes drilled into bedrock filled with concrete
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Integral End Abutment

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Semi-Deep End Abutment

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Prestressed I-girder intermediate bent

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Steel girders with open intermediate bent diaphragms

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Pile Cap Column Footing

Footing

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Column Footing

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Preliminary Design
Bridge location Hydraulic design to determine required bridge length and profile grade Bridge type selection

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Stream Gage Data

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Flood-Frequency Rating Curve


160000

Discharge (cfs)

120000

80000

40000

0 0 20 40 60 80 100

Return period (years)


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Rational Method

Q kc C I A
Q = discharge (cfs or m3/s) kc = constant (1.0 for English units or
0.00278 for metric units) C = Runoff Coefficient I = Rainfall Intensity (in/hr or mm/hr) A = Drainage Area (acres or hectares)
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Drainage Area Delineation

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Stream Valley Cross-sections


n1 n2 n3

Left Overbank Channel

Right Overbank

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Mannings Equation
2 1.486 Q A R 3 S0 n

n = Roughness Coefficient A = Area R = Hydraulic Radius = A / P P = Wetted Perimeter S = Hydraulic Gradient (channel slope)
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Stream Valley Cross-sections


n1 n2 n3

Left Overbank Channel

Right Overbank

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Energy Equation
V12 V22 z1 y1 z 2 y2 hl 2g 2g

1
Velocity Pressure V12/2g

2
EGL hl HGL
y1 Headloss

V22/2g y2

Velocity

Pressure

Elevation

z1
Datum z2 Elevation
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Constriction of Valley by Bridge


Bridge Deck/Roadway

Opening Length
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Encroachment by Roadway Fill


Encroachment Bridge Opening Encroachment

Fill

Fill

Backwater

Flood elevation before encroachment on floodplain


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Affect of Bridge on Flood Elevations


Backwater Design High Water Surface (DHW) Normal Water Surface

Water Surface through Structure

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Part 2
Slab Design

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Geometry & Loads


Deck Weight = Width x Thickness x Unit Weight 1 ft x (8.5in x12 in/ft) x 150 lb/cf = 106 lb/ft

16k

16k

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Design Moment
MDL1 = wS2/10 = 0.106 x 82 / 10 = 0.678 MDL2 = wS2/10 = 0.035 x 82 / 10 = 0.224 MLL = 0.8(S+2)P/32 = 0.8(8+2)(16)/32 = 4 MImp = 30% x MLL = 1.2 Mu = 1.3[0.678+0.224+1.67(4+1.2)] = 12.4

Design For 12.4 k-ft/ft


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Statics, Moment, Shear, Stress?

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Reinforced Concrete Design


Basic Equations For Moment Utilize Whitney Stress Block Concept
Design Moment 12.4 k-ft/ft
Compression 0.85fcba

= =
= =

Capacity f As fy(d-a/2)
Tension As fy

f = 0.90

Two Simultaneous Equations, Two Unknowns (a & As)


Comp. c = a / b1 d

Tens.

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Reinforced Concrete Design


(0.85)(4ksi)(12in)(a)=(As)(60ksi) a=1.47As 12.4k-ft=(0.9)(As)(60ksi)(6in-1.47As/2)/(12in/ft) 12.4=27As-3.31As2 ax2+bx+c=0 a=3.31, b=-27, c=12.4, x=As As = [-b - (b2 - 4ac)1/2]/2a As = [-27 - ((-27)2-(4)(3.31)(12.4))1/2]/[(2)(3.31)] As = 0.49 in2/ft Comp. c = a / b1 5/8 rebar at 7.5 in centers
d c

Tens.
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Part 3
Steel Beam Design

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Simple Span Beam 50 ft span

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Dead Load = Beam Weight + Deck Weight

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Live Load = HS20 Truck x Distribution Factor

Distribution Factor = S/5.5

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Design Moment = 2358 kip-ft

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Design Shear = 214 kips

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Steel Girder Design


Design Moment = 2358 k-ft Design Shear = 214 kips Limit Bending Stress Due To Moment

Limit Shear Stress Due to Shear


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Girder Design
Moment Of Inertia (I)
1/12bh3+Ad2 Parallel Axis Theorem

Section Modulus = S = I/c Stress = Moment/Section Modulus (M/S) For Strength Design Limit Stress to Fy Find Shape With S > M/Fy S > (2358k-ft)(12in/ft)/50ksi = 566 in3 A W36x170 Provides 580 in3
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Part 4
Intermediate Bent Design

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Load Cases
Permanent Loads:
DD = Downdrag DC = Dead Load Component DW = Dead Load Wearing Surface EH = Horizontal Earth ES = Earth Surcharge EV = Vertical Earth EL = Locked In Forces

Transient Loads:
SE = Settlement BR = Braking CE = Centrifugal Force CT = Vehicular Collision CV = Vessel Collision EQ = Earthquake IC = Ice Load FR = Friction
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Load Cases (Cont.)


Transient Loads:
LL = Live Load IM = Dynamic Load LS = Live Load Surcharge PL = Pedestrian Load WL = Wind On Live Load WS = Wind On Structure

Transient Loads:
TG = Temperature Gradient TU = Uniform Temperature CR = Creep SH = Shrinkage WA = Water Load

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Load Combinations
Load Combination Limit State STRENGTH I (unless noted) STRENGTH II STRENGTH III STRENGTH IV STRENGTH V EXTREME EVENT I EXTREME EVENT II SERVICE I SERVICE II SERVICE III SERVIE IV FATIGUE LL, IM & CE ONLY DC DD DW EH EV ES EL LL IM CE BR PL LS 1.75 1.35 --1.35 Use One of These at a Time WA 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -WS --1.40 -0.40 --0.30 --0.70 -WL ----1.0 --1.0 ----FR 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -TU CR SH 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 --0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 -TG SE EQ -----1.00 ------IC ------1.00 -----CT ------1.00 -----CV ------1.00 ------

gp gp gp gp gp gp gp
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 --

gTG gTG gTG


--

gSE gSE gSE


--

gTG
---

gSE
---

gEQ
0.50 1.00 1.30 0.80 -0.75

gTG
--

gSE
--

gTG
---

gSE
1.0 --

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Water (WA) Strength


Contraction Scour 100 year Q100 P b Resultant

Pier Scour 100 year

M = (Pbh)(h)

= Pbh2

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Contraction Scour 500 year

Water (WA) - Extreme Event (Cont.)


B CD=0.5 Drift Mat Q500
2 Force 0.5V

1000

(B)

b CD=0.7

2 Force 0.7V

1000

(b)

Pressure = CDV2/1000

Pier Scour 500 year

A = Of Water Depth 10 B = Sum Of Adjacent Span Length 45

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Wind on Structure (WS)


W

PVert. = (20psf)(W)(L)
P(WS)Vert.
W H

PTrans. = (50psf)(H)(L)
P(WS)Trans.

PLong. = (12psf)(H)(LT)(%)
H

P(WS)Long. PSub.

PSub. = (40psf)(b) L = Tributary Length LT = Total Bridge Length % = Long. Distribution %

b = Column Or Cap Width

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Wind on Live Load (WL)


P(WL)Trans. 6 P(WL)Long.

PTrans. = (100plf)(L) PLong. = (40plf)(LT)(%) L = Tributary Length LT = Total Bridge Length % = Long. Distribution %

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Int. Bent Analysis

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Cap Beam - Strength Limit State


Basic Equations For Moment Utilize Whitney Stress Block Concept
f Mn = f As fy(d-a/2)

f = 0.90
Comp. c = a / b1 de

c
Tens.

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Cap Beam Service Limit State


Crack Control
s
700g e 2dc b s fs
b s 1
dc 0.7(h dc )

dc = Concrete Cover To Center Of Closest Bar fs = Service Tensile Stress In Reinforcement h = Overall Section Thickness ge = 1.00 For Class 1 Exposure (Crack Width = 0.017) = 0.75 For Class 2 Exposure (Crack Width = 0.013)

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Cap Beam Service Limit State


Crack Control Is Based On A Physical Model
fc1 x fc1 fc1

dc

fs/n Primary Tension Reinforcement dc fc2

fs/n fc2 l

fs/n

fc2

Crack Spacing
s

l s

l=

2 d s
2 c

2 =16.03
2

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Simplified Shear Design


LRFD
Vc 0.0316 b

0.0
f 'c bv dv Vs

f Vn = f (Vc + Vs + Vp)(kips)

f = 0.90 A v f y dv (cotq cota )sina


s

a Set At 90
Set: b=2.0, q =45 Multiply V c By 1000 To Convert To Lbs

Results In: Vc 2.00

f 'c bv dv

Vs

A v f y dv s
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Simplifed Shear Design


400 200 0 -200 -400

6 - #9s

6 - #9s

Section A-A
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(Each Face)

5 - #6s

#5s @ 12 or 6

Column Design
P (kip) 3500 (P max)

18-#9 Bars

Controlling Point

Column 42 Diameter

1800 M (k-ft) -1000 (P min)

Axial Load Moment Interaction Diagram


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