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Foot and Mouth Disease

Trina Johnson, Cari Ostrom, Carolyn Ritter, Craig Spray, and Lindsay Wilson

What is Foot and Mouth?


Acute viral infectious disease Begins with fever, followed by the development of vesicles on mouth and feet Very infectious and spreads rapidly Wild and domesticated cloven hoofed animals are affected Rarely fatal, but pregnant animals often abort and dairy cattle may dry up

Illustration

Universal Symptoms of Foot and Mouth Disease


Shivering Tender and sore feet Slobbering and smacking lips Blisters on hoof, feet, snout, or tongue

Illustration

Clinical disease and diagnosis


All species of cloven-hoofed animals are susceptible to FMD, including domestic livestock and wild ungulates. Clinical signs are essentially similar in all species although the severity may vary.

Specific signs in Cattle


Slobbering and smacking lips Shivering Tender and sore feet Reduced milk yield Sores and blisters on feet Raised body temperature

Specific signs in Sheep


Sudden, severe lameness Lying down frequently and unwillingness to rise Reluctance to move Blisters found on the hoof, dental pad and sometimes tongue

Specific signs in Swine


Sudden lameness Preference to lie down Loud squeal and hobbling when set into motion Blisters may develop on snout, tongue and/or hoof

Important!!
Swine Vesicular Disease has identical symptoms to FMD. Therefore anyone who sees blisters in pigs must report the sighting as suspected FMD, until laboratory tests prove otherwise.

How its spread!


Although there are numerous ways this disease can be spread, three surface to the top.

Most predominant paths of transmission are..


Human intervention Animal to Animal contact Airborne transmission

Human intervention
People wearing contaminated clothing, or footwear Using contaminated equipment I.e. veterinary tools, shovels, etc. Contaminated vehicles traveling from farm to farm Using contaminated facilities to house susceptible animals

Animal to Animal contact


Animals carrying the virus are introduced to susceptible herds Susceptible cows inseminated by infected bulls Direct contact with infected wildlife

Airborne transmission
Through the air in aerosols from infected animals Birds can play a substantial role in transmission as well

Ways to Control Foot and Mouth Disease


Vaccination Surveillance programs Quarantine procedures Establishment of control zones Strict Biosecurity Reporting of confirmed cases Using All-In/All-Out Cleansing and disinfection
Over 250 approved disinfectants (www.ahda.org.uk/disinfectants.htm)

Vaccine Choice
Safe Potent
Proven protection

Appropriate
Consult National or International Reference laboratory or a manufacturer about the most appropriate strain to use

Vaccine Strains Have Been Selected For Their:


Immunogenicity Ability to grow well in tissue culture Broad antigenic spectrum

Individual Herd Vaccination


Reduces the morbidity in adults Reduces mortality in young Reduces likelihood of incursion Can reduce the severity and duration of the disease due to raising the herds immunity level Combined with good biosecurity control

Advice to Farmers
Keep Livestock separate Deal with sheep last Keep yourself clean Keep the farm secure Keep unnecessary vehicles away Clean and disinfect Avoid visiting other farms Look for early signs of disease

Eradication of FMD
Slaughter and disposal is essential to eliminate the source A rapid and complete elimination is necessary

Disposal
Cremation (preferred) Burial Rendering

Movement controls
Infected area Protection zone Surveillance zone

Emergency Vaccine (Two Objectives)


Dampening down vaccinations Protective emergency vaccinations to produce an immune belt

Questions?