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Pumped Hydro Storage

By Catherine Mayida

Outline
Introduction Main Goal of Pumped Hydro Storage Types of PHS Power Plants How PHS Power Plants Work PHS Power Plant Infrastructure

Outline
The 5 Largest Operational PHS Plants Disadvantages of PHS Plant Environmental Impact of Power Plant Resources

Introduction
Electrical energy can be stored during times that electrical generation from power plants exceeds the consumption by customers and the stored energy can then be utilized at times when consumption of electricity exceeds generation of electricity.

Main Goal of Pumped Hydro Storage


Bulk energy storagehelps avoiding the sharp spikes in power generation thus making the power plant operation more efficient. Reduces fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions[2]. Peak shaving by pumping during low fuel-cost periods and generating during high fuel-cost periods. Provides reliable spinning and non-spinning reserve capacity.

Types of PHS Power Plants


There are two main types of PHS facilities; Pure or off-stream PHS: which relies entirely on water that was previously pumped into an upper reservoir as the source of energy Combined or pump-back PHS: uses both pumped water and natural stream flow water to generate power

How PHS Power Plants Work

How PHS Power Plants Work


The relatively low energy density of pumped storage systems {requires either a very large body of water or a large variation in height. For example, 1000 kgof water (1cubic meter)at the top of a 100mtower has a potential energy of about 0.272kWh, enough to its raise temp. by 0.42 deg. Fahrenheit}

How PHS Power Plants Work


Pumped Hydro Storage Plant(PHSP) consists of: Two water reservoirs at different heights Hydroelectric power generator at the level of the lower reservoir. Process: Water can be pumped from the lower to the upper reservoir Plant operator has to buy electricity. The PSHP generates electricity by discharging the water and driving the generator.

PHS Plant Technologies


A full-storage strategy, or load shifting, shifts the entire on-peak heating or cooling load to off-peak hours. Operates at full capacity during all non-peak hours to charge storage on design days. Strategy best where on-peak demand costs are high or short on-peak period.

PHS Plant Technologies


Partial-storage approach, the peak period cooling load is met by both: Mechanical equipment Pumped storage The equipment size is smaller capacity than the design load. Partial storage systems may be run as loadleveling or demand-limiting operations.

PHS Plant Technologies


In a load-leveling system, equipment is sized to run at its full capacity for 24 hrs. A load-leveling approach minimizes the required equipment and storage capacities. This strategy is most effective where the peak load >> average load. When the load < equipment output, the surplus energy is stored. When the load > capacity, the additional requirement is discharged from storage.

PHS Plant Technologies

PHS Power Plant Infrastructure

PHS Power Plant Infrastructure


A dam is built on a large river that has a large drop in elevation (there are not many hydroelectric plants in Kansas or Florida!). The dam stores lots of water behind it in the reservoir. Near the bottom of the dam wall there is the water intake. Gravity causes it to fall through the penstock inside the dam.

PHS Power Plant Infrastructure


At the end of the penstock there is a turbine propeller, which is turned by the moving water. The shaft from the turbine goes up into the generator, which produces the power.

Power lines are connected to the generator that carry electricity to your home and mine.

PHS Infrastructure vs other storage

The 5 Largest Operational PHS Plants

1. Bath County Pumped Station 2. Guangdong Pumped Storage Power Station 3. Huizhou Pumped Storage Power Station 4. Okutataragi Pumped Storage Power Station 5. Ludington Pumped Storage Power Plant (Source [7])

USA

3003 MW

CHINA 2400 MW CHINA 2400 MW JAPAN 1932 MW USA 1872 MW

PHS Plants in the USA

Disadvantages of PHS Plant


The construction of a PHS station typically takes many years, sometimes over a decade[5]. High upfront capital investment[5]. Salt water plants require special technologies to deal with the following barriers: Leakage of salt water into the surrounding environment. Corrosion of the equipment caused by salt water is also a concern.

Environmental Impact of PHS Plant Disruption of the aquatic ecosystem


may destroy terrestrial wildlife habitats[5] Severely alter the landscape[5] Pumping may also increase the water temperature and stir up sediments at the bottom of the reservoirs and deteriorate water quality.

Environmental Impact of PHS Plant


PHS operation may also trap and kill fish. However, There are technologies to mitigate the ecological impacts. A rubber lining is placed on upper reservoir, seawater detectors, pressure gauges used to detect salt leakage. Fibreglass Reinforces Plastic (FRP) used for Penstock Austenite Stainless Steel

Fish deterrent systems(breakwater of concrete blocks) minimize fish entrapment. The water intake and outlet could be designed to minimize the turbulence. An oxygen injection system can compensate for the potential oxygen loss due to warming of the water after pumping. In some cases, the PHS system may serve to stabilize water level and maintain water quality[5].

Environmental Impact of PHS Plant

Resources
[1] http://www.pumpedhydrostorage.com [2]http://www.bulkenergystorage.com [3]http://www.agrion.org [4]http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumped-Storage hydroelectricity [5]http://people.duke.edu/~cy42/PHS.pdf [6]How can pumpedstorage hydroelectric generators optimise plant operation in liberalised electricity markets with growing wind power integration?, David Wilde (Dundee University). [7]http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/graphics/hydro-pumpedstorage.gif [8]http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_b5hcKABPlGI/TAxth2CMceI/AAAAAAA AgIA/2er5EF2L6f0/s400/6-710a [9]http://wastedenergy.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/okinawa_ps.j pg[10]http://blogs.worldwatch.org/revolt/pump-up-that-seawatera-remix-to-pumped-storage-hydro/

[11]http ://2.bp.blogspot.com/-O9qqU-9BoW0/UOpxE_lo7MI/AAAAAAAABJY/kTps04faZ jpg

Resources
[12] http://ixeee.com/storage.html [13] http://www.fhc.co.uk/images/pics/pumped_storage.jpg [14] http://en.wikipedia.org/ wikiFile:Grid_storage_energy_flow.png

[15]http ://www.hydroworld.com/content/dam/etc/medialib/new-lib/hydroreview/p gif

[16] http://www.unendlich-viel-energie.de/uploads/media/AEE_Storage_capac jpg