Sei sulla pagina 1di 124

Institute of Product Design & Manufacturing Universiti Kuala Lumpur

About the lecturer

Zaipul Anwar Bin Zainudin Institute of Product Design & Manufacturing, Universiti Kuala Lumpur 03-27154715 Email: Website: Blog:

Subject Contents in General

Computer Hardware Computer software Application programs
Word processing Presentation Spreadsheets

Data & information management Computer networking Applications of networking: Internet, Intranet

Subject Content in Details

1.0 The Information Technology Basic Information Technology Concepts Computer History Basic Components of Computer System How a Computer System Works 2.0 Function of Major Computer Hardware Computer Configuration and Classification Central Processing Unit Input-Output Devices and Peripherals Secondary Storage 3.0 Basic Uses of Application S/ware & OS Operating System and Its Functions Disk Operating System (DOS) Primer High and Low Level Languages Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter WINDOWS and MS Office Primer 4.0 Data Security Importance of Backup The Computer Virus Crisis 5.0 Computer and Network Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) LAN Components, Topologies and Types Transmission Media

Describe the three fundamental characteristics of computers Describe at least four areas of society in which computers are used Identify the basic components of a computer system: input, processing, output, and storage List some common input, output, and storage media Distinguish data from information Describe the significance of networking Explain the significance of the Internet Explain the various classifications of computers

Course Assessment
Quiz Test Assignment Final Exam 20% 20% 20% 40%

Total = 100%

Introduction to Computers
Computer hardware Input, Output & peripheral devices History of computers

Basic Components of a Computer System

What is computer?
An electronic device that can accept data (input), process the input to useful information (process) according to a set of instructions, store the instructions and the results of processing (storage), and produce the information (output).

Basic Components of a Computer System

Other definition: A machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it away (in secondary storage device) for safekeeping or later reuse

Process is directed by software but performed by the hardware

Information Age
Evolving more rapidly than Industrial Age Will continue into the current century

Cornerstones of our Economy

Forging a Computer-Based Society:
Land Labor Capital Information

Forging a Computer-Based Society:
From physical to mental From muscle-power to brain-power

A Computer in Your Future

Where used?
Bank withdrawal Supermarket Drive the car

Do I need a Personal Computer?

Campaign: One Home, One PC Many more use at work

Will I use a computer in my future career?

Almost every job will involve use of a computer

Video: Future of Information Technology

Computer Literacy
Importance Versatility Pervasiveness in our society

What are computers How do computers work Terminology

Use some simple computer applications

Is computer literacy enough?

Need to be computer literate to manipulate a computer Need to be computer fluent on computer concepts as a basis to build deeper knowledge Computer fluency make one able to continue follow developments as computers continue to evolve

Basic Information Technology Concept

Information technology - the use of modern technology to aid the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and communication of information.
The various methods of delivering information are by the use of data, text, image, and voice for personal or organization needs.

History of Computers
Man from centuries ago used a physical unit or sets of units to represent numbers or quantities. A number or a quantity can be represented by a physical thing, whether it is:
a pebble an electrical relay a transistor

a mark on a bit of paper

a bead of wire

a mechanical gear wheel

a vacuum tube

The Nature of Computers

Speed Reliability Storage capability

Productivity Decision making Cost reduction

Where Computers Are Used: Graphics

Graphs and charts

Animated graphics
Visual walk-through

Where Computers Are Used: Education

Teaching and testing aid Learning by doing Computer-based instruction

Where Computers Are Used: Retailing

Bar codes for pricing and inventory Shipping

Where Computers Are Used: Energy

Locate oil, coal, natural gas, and uranium Monitor the power network Meter reading

Where Computers Are Used :Law Enforcement

National fingerprint files

National files on criminal Computer modeling of DNA

Where Computers Are Used: Transportation

Cars Run rapid transit systems Load containerships Track railroad cars Monitor air traffic

Where Computers Are Used: Money

Record keeping

Banking by phone
Credit cards

Where Computers Are Used: Agriculture

Billing Crop information Feed combinations Livestock breeding and performance

Where Computers Are Used: Government

Forecast weather E-government Process immigrants Taxes Registration: birth, identity, car etc.

Where Computers Are Used: The Home

Educational tool Record keeping Letter writing Budgeting Drawing and editing pictures Newsletters Connecting with others

Where Computers Are Used: Health and Medicine

Monitor patients

Electronic imaging
Diagnose illnesses


Where Computers Are Used: Robotics

Perform jobs that are dangerous for humans Factory work

Where Computers Are Used: The Human Connection

Assist the disabled

Assist athletes by monitoring their movements

Where Computers Are Used

The Sciences
Research Simulation

Communication Telecommuting

Where Computers Are Used

Airline pilots Railroad engineers

Junk mail Term paper Record keeping

Computers are all around!

Grocery store Schools Libraries Bank Mail Malls

We interact with computers everyday!

What computers cant do yet?

Complex human activities

What else? Can you think of others?

Computer System People

Software Hardware

Computer programmer person who writes programs
Users or End-users make use of the computers capabilities


Set of instructions that directs the hardware to do a required task and produce the desired results

Hardware: Basic Components of a Computer

Computer Components
1. Input Devices - examples: keyboard and the mouse - data entered on the keyboard and temporarily stored in the computers memory and displayed on the monitor 2. System Unit - contains the electronic circuits that cause the processing of data to occur - consists of central processing unit, memory, (RAM and ROM) and other electronic components - CPU has a control unit and arithmetic/logic unit - RAM temporarily stores data and program instructions when they are processed

Computer Components cont.

4. Output Devices - most commonly used output devices are monitor and printer - Monitor :commonly as CRT or Flat Panel Display - Printer: Dot-Matrix, Ink-Jet etc. 5. Secondary Storage Devices - also known as auxiliary storage devices - stores instructions and data when they are not being used by the system unit - Examples : floppy disk and hard disk drive

How a Computer System Works


Input Process

Information Output

How a Computer System Works cont.

Software - The instructions needed to direct the computer to complete specific tasks.

The CPU follows the step-by-step instructions in a program to complete the tasks from user.
Operating system is the system software that controls the basic, low-level hardware operations and file management.

Computer Configuration and Classification

Microcomputers - Also known as personal computers - Physical sizes : palmtop, desktop and tower case - Cheaper and smaller in size Minicomputer - Also known as departmental computers - Physical sizes : small to large cabinets - Support business application

Computer Configuration and Classification cont.

Mainframe - Large computers with the capability to process data at millions of instructions per second. - Physical size : partial to full room of equipment Supercomputer - Most powerful and expensive computers - Vast quantities of data manipulation - Physical size : full room of equipment - No. of users : hundreds of users

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

- It is the heart of the computer, that is the microprocessor chip. - A highly complex, extensive set of electronic circuitry that executes stored program instructions. - CPU perform three main tasks : Perform arithmetic operations Perform logic operations Retrieval and storage of data

CPU cont.
- CPU consists of two main units :1. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - arithmetic operations e.g. +, -, x, / - logic operations e.g. >, >=, ==, <, <= 2. Control unit - fetches instructions from memory - decode/translate instructions - executes the processing tasks - stores result in memory

CPU cont.
What happens in a CPU?

- CU fetches instructions from memory - CU decodes/translates instructions, directs necessary data to ALU

- ALU executes arithmetic/logic instruction - ALU stores results into memory

CPU cont.
- also known as primary storage, primary memory, main storage, internal storage, and main memory
- Consists of RAM and ROM 1. RAM (Random Access Memory) - volatile; means the data exists only when power is ON - two types of RAM, dynamic and static

2. ROM (Read Only Memory) - non-volatile; means data permanently stored in and cannot be changed

Function of Computer System Data handling

I P O S Input Process Output Storage

Processing: Batch vs. Interactive

2 types of information processing
Batch processing Interactive processing : Real time

Input devices
Accept data or commands and convert them to electronic form
Getting data into the computer
Typing on a keyboard Pointing with a mouse Scanning with a wand reader or bar-code reader Terminal

Output devices
Convert from electronic form to some other form May display the processed results Usable information Monitor or screen
Text Numbers Symbols Art Photographs Video

Black and white Color

Input and Output Devices

1. Input devices
- Common type of devices used are the keyboard and the mouse - Standard type of keyboard is the QWERTY which has 86 keys (basic) and 101-102 keys (enhanced). - Mouse is a pointing device for effective use of computer interface. Trackball and touch pad are also considered as pointing devices.

Input and Output Devices cont.

Digitizer - A pad with a pen-like stylus. - The tablet sends electronic signals to the computer, displaying the image drawn.

Input and Output Devices cont.

Input devices cont.

Source data automation

the use of special equipment to collect data at the source and send it directly to the computer. OCR



Bar code

Hand Written

Input and Output Devices cont.

2. Output devices
- most common devices are monitor displays and printers

- Two types of display; flat panel display and CRT display (Cathode Ray Tube)
- Two categories of printers; impact and non-impact printers

Input and Output Devices cont.

1. Flat Panel - commonly used in laptop, notebook - examples of flat panel; LCD, Gas Plasma 2. CRT - produce best images for computers - two types of display; monochrome and color - monochrome; displays one color (green or amber) - color; four types:

Input and Output Devices cont.

Displays cont.
Standard Graphic Add-on-Boards CGA (Color Graphic Adapter) EGA (Enhanced Graphic Adapter) VGA (Video Graphic Array) SVGA (Super Video Graphic Array) Resolution (by pixels) 640 x 200 640 x 350 640 x 480 1024 x 768

Input and Output Devices cont.

Two types of printers (according to printing methods) Impact printers - use a physical contact with the paper to produce an image - e.g. dot matrix printer and line printer Non-impact printers - Place images on a paper without physically touching it -e.g. thermal, inkjet, laser printer

Can you think of any other input/output devices?

The Processor Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Converts data to useful information

Interpret and execute instructions

Communicate with input, output and storage

Two Types of Storage

Secondary storage long-term storage Primary storage or memory temporary storage

Memory / Primary Storage

Temporary storage
Holds input to be processed Holds results of processing Contains the programs to control the computer and manipulate input into output Volatile

Secondary Storage
Long-term storage Non-volatile

Secondary Storage Examples

Magnetic disks read and written by magnetic disk drive
Hard disk Diskette

Optical disks read and written by optical disk drives


Magnetic tape read and written by magnetic tape drives

Primarily used for back-up

Magnetic Disk

Secondary Storage
It is needed because Main memory stores data temporarily Main memory space is limited

Benefits of secondary storage Space Reliability Convenience Economic

Computer System
CPU Memory

Peripheral equipment
Connected to the computer by a cable Input, output, storage

Computer Network
A system that uses communications equipment to connect computers and their resources.

Local area network (LAN) connects computers in close proximity
Metropolitan are network (MAN) connect computers between buildings in the same geographic area Wide are network (WAN) connects computers over great distances

Home Connectivity
Connect home PC to other computers

Use modem to convert signals between electronic (computer) and analog (voice) formats

Collection of networks No ownership No central source for services available No comprehensive index of what information is available Connects Everyone!
Individuals Businesses Organizations Libraries Research labs Government

Getting Connected
Users computer must connect to a server
Server must communicate using TCP/IP

The user can purchase access to a server from an ISP (Internet Service Provider)

Internet What Can You Do?

WWW World Wide Web
FTP File Transfer Protocol E-mail UseNet IRC Internet Relay Chat Bulletin Boards

World Wide Web

Browser program that allows the user to move around and explore the Internet Use the mouse to point and click on text and graphics Web page

Web site
Home page

Classifications of Computers
Use the computer that fits your needs Based upon
Size Speed Cost Portability Number of simultaneous users supported Available software Typical use

Personal Computers
Other names
PC Microcomputer Home computer Low-end functional Fully powered Workstations Net computer or net box (Web TV)


Desktop Models

Notebook Computers
Lightweight Fits in a briefcase Battery operated

Larger Heavier

More expensive that desktop models

Handheld Computers
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
Scheduling Addresses Handwritten input May offer wireless e-mail and fax

PDA Phone
More power than PDA Cellphone, GPS, MP3/MP4, Camera, Video, TV, Radio etc. Runs various type softwares, serving various applications

Other Types of Computers

High speed More expensive Used to process large amounts of data quickly Support multiple users Does server tasks

Fastest speed Most expensive

Operating System and Its Function

What is a software?

- The instructions needed to direct the computer to complete specific tasks.

- Software can be categorized into two types :-

Operating System and Its Function cont.

System Software - program controlling the actual operations of the computer equipments - the operating system tells computer how to perform functions such as load, store, execute application program, transfer data between I/O devices and main memory Application Software - program that tells a computer how to produce information - examples of application software : Business, scientific, educational programs and etc.

Operating System and Its Function cont.

Definition of OS :A set of programs that control and supervise a computer systems hardware

Purposes of OS : To manage the hardware for efficient utilization of computer resources

To interface between a user/an application program with the hardware

Operating System and Its Function cont.

OS is made up of 2 programs;
Service Program

Control Program

Operating System and Its Function cont.

1. Control program - three main functions Resource allocation allocate processor time, primary storage, input and output devices to monitor, schedule and control programs for its efficient processing -managing access to data for input of information to printers, disks/displays - all hardware components activities are controlled by the supervisor program

Job management

Data management

Operating System and Its Function cont.

2. Service programs - provides services to the user/programmer - services include language-translator programs and utility programs - language-translator program converts instructions from English-like language to machine-language to be executed by the computer - utility program performs loading, saving, copying, keeping track of files stored on a disk, preparing a formatted disk

Operating System and Its Function cont.


What an Operating System does?

1. Checks the functionality of the computers hardware. It generates an error message (by messages or beeps) if any components are found faulty. 2. Then the OS control programs will load the supervisor program into the computers memory booting 3. Once the supervisor control program in memory, the system displays the prompt sign (C:\>), indicating that it is ready to work

DOS is the supervisor program of the computer It does all the followings

Interface to peripherals How to interpret input, how to process data, and how to produce output Application launcher Most programming software, games etc. use DOS prompt to run application Utility provider Manage disks and files, prepare disks for storage, copy files to a disk, to move or rename files, and to delete files

MS-DOS cont.
Using DOS prompt to get command from user Examples for DOS operation
DOS version/prompt type Modify date/time File and directory contents Clearing a DOS screen Going to subdirectory and back to root directory Searching for specific files Copy files from A drive / C drive

Microsoft Windows (98, 2000, XP, Vista) Mac OS (X) Linux OS (Hundreds of even thousands of distros ex: Red Hat, Ubuntu, Mandrake etc. Visit for listing of Linux OS) Unix OS etc.

Mozilla Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari




Firefox is gaining Popularity over IE

Low and High Level Languages

Programming Language - a set of written symbols that instruct the computer hardware to perform certain tasks - can be categorized as Low level Language and High Level Language Low Level Language - Language that has the tendency towards specific, delicate machine syntax - Machine Language and Assembly Language

Low and High Level Languages cont.

Low Level Language cont.
Machine Language
- consists of entirely 1s and 0s that only the computer

understands - depends on different, specific hardware designs - it executes very fast, but is time consuming and difficult to understand - only programmer who has the knowledge of the computer architecture is able to understand the language

Low and High Level Languages cont.

Low Level Language cont.
Assembly Language - also considered as Low Level Language because it still needs specific knowledge of hardware - it differs from machine language because of it uses mnemonic in spite of 1s and 0s to represent the operation codes - mnemonic code is an alphabetic abbreviation that is easy to remember - it produce programs very efficient, less storage usage and the execution is much faster

Low and High Level Languages cont.

High Level Language
- instructions resemble human language and mathematical notation - no detail knowledge of computer hardware and internal operation of a computer - easier to learn because of the English-like language rather than understanding machine codes and instructions - E.g. FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C/C++

Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter



(Source code)

(Object code)

Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter cont.

Compiler - the source code will remain unchanged after the conversion but can be updated and changed, then compiled again - after it is compiled, then the object code can be executed - example of HLL program uses compiler is the C and C++
Interpreter - the interpreter will translate a program one line at a time, executing each line of the program after it is translated - if an error should occur during execution, the error must be rectified or solved before it can proceed to the next line - example of HLL program uses interpreter is the BASIC

Importance of Backup cont.

Data is exposed to several threats.

Importance of Backup cont.

Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)
How does UPS works?

- it is connected in series with the computer system - when power is interrupted, this result the UPS to function as a backup supply of power to the computer system - depends on the type of UPS, it will operate in 20 minutes or more - it is advisable to backup important data within the time limit to prevent any lost of data

Importance of Backup cont.

Components of UPS
- one rectifier (charger) to convert AC to DC and to fully charge the battery - one battery to supply DC power to the inverter and the supported time are based on the number and size of batteries - one inverter to convert DC to AC - one static bypass switch to control the load from/to the power source to/from the battery and allows certain load to transfer tolerances needed by the computer and its peripherals

The Computer Virus Crisis

The elements of a computer virus :

1. A set of instructions

- a program being made to disrupt or interfere other programs 2. Deliberately created - purposely created by humans or by itself 3. Actively propagates - reproducing itself 4. Infects other programs - contaminate or polluting different types of programs 5. Able to do harm - can cause damage to others 6. Able to evolve - developing, growing and changing in programs or systems

The Computer Virus Crisis cont.

What are the damages of the virus to a computer system :
1. Creates garbage in your computer system that takes up space in the memory and into your diskettes 2. Messing up files in their normal standard and altering some of the files

3. Messing up the FAT (File Allocation Table) which contains information of where are the other data's stored on your disk
4. Messing up the boot sector that can restrict your computer from being able to execute at all

The Computer Virus Crisis cont.

Types of anti-virus software
The Computer Virus Industry Association (CVIA) in the USA has developed three basic categories of anti-virus software.

To prevent initial infection

To identify and remove viruses

To detect infection

Network : Computers connected together to communicate among themselves.

Resource Sharing File Sharing Communication PCs Administration and Security


- Computer network technology can be classified by the distance the network technology is designed to span - There are three types of networking : Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

Wide Area Network (WAN)


Local Area Network (LAN)

- Relatively small refers to the transmission media and computer hardware - The area is not exceeding 10 KM - It only uses one type of transmission medium - It share resources within building or campus


Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

- The network is larger compared to LAN

- The area covers a city of 10 to 100KM

- It requires efficient hardware and transmission media to cover these areas


Wide Area Network (WAN)

- The network is larger than MAN and LAN

- It interconnect LAN of opposite sides of country or around

the world - It covers huge geographical area in the world


Local Area Network




Host Computer

Local Area Network

Front end Processor


Every LAN is made up of a standard set of components:

Topology: The physical connection among computers within a network - the topology is the configuration of the hardware and shows which pairs of nodes can communicate -there are three common types of topologies :Star topology

Ring topology
Bus topology

Star Ring


Protocol : A set of rules to access the network to send data.
Two common LAN protocols

Transmission Media : The physical medium used for transmission.
Twisted Pair Cable Types of TM
Microwave Transmission

Coaxial Cable
Fiber Optic Cable

Satellite Transmission



Copper wire conductor

Colour-coded insulation



Outer plastic covering

Inner conductor


Optical fiber Protective outer sheath

Glass covering Strength wires