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Personnel research is the task of searching for and analyzing facts relating to the end that personnel problems may be solved or principles and laws governing their solution derived. Personnel research implies systematic investigation into any aspect of personnel or human resource management in a systematic way.



of a problem Selection of hypothesis Designs of experiment Description of sampling Collection of data Analysis and interpretation of data Report writing

HR research is purposive, means seeks to answer only specific questions It is objective in nature It is systematic It identifies methods & techniques for the solution of problem with minimum cost HR research is repeatable. Can be used by different researchers at the same time It is planned & designed investigation & analysis It supplements the knowledge & extends the frontiers of understanding.


To measure & evaluate present conditions To predict future conditions, events & behavioral patterns To appraise proposed policies, programmes & activities To evaluate the effects & results of current policies, programmes, practices and activities To provide an objective basis for a revision of current policies, programmes, practices and activities To evaluate & review the linkage & knitting b/w organizational strategies & HRM strategies To discover means and ways of strengthening the abilities & attitudes of employees.


Techniques to carry out personnel research

Personnel research can be undertaken through: Historical studies Case studies Survey method Statistical studies

Simulation methods

Personnel decisions can be improved through personnel research because better information leads to better solutions Personnel research can offer valuable insights for managers as they attempt to increase employee productivity and satisfaction while reducing absenteeism and turnover.
Personnel Records, Audit And Research


To build upon existing knowledge Evaluation of proposed programmes, practices & activities Evaluation of current & new policies & practices Anticipation of personnel problems


employees satisfaction Enhance employees productivity Reducing absentism Decreasing turnover



A human resource audit evaluates the personnel activities used in an organization. The audit may include one division or entire company. It gives feedback about : 1. The function of operating managers. 2. The human resource specialists. 3. How well managers are meeting their human resource duties. In short, the audit is an overall quality control check on human resource activities in a division or company and how those activities support the organizations strategy

Need for HR Audit:

Though, to audit HR- Policies & Practices no legal obligation exists, some Modern Organizations chase to:

1. Increase size of Organization & Personnel

2. Change Philosophy of Management towards HR

3. Increase Strength & Influence of Unions

HR Audit Significance:
1. Essential for Organization success.

2. It Provides Required Feedback.

3. Managing Rising Labor Costs.

4. Increasing Opportunities for Competitive Advantage of HRM.

5. HR Audit can avoid Government intervention 6. HRP protect Employees interests by identifying their problems.

Scope of Audit:
HR Audit has wide scope, involves much more than Management.
Special area Policies HR Philosophy

Programmes & Practices

leadership styles delegation Motivation & commitment Organizing negotiation Scope of HR Audit

Personnel Results Research & Innovation Planning Forecasting

Scheduling Staffing & Development

Use Of HR Audit:
Basic purpose of HR-Audit is to find: 1. How various units are functioning? 2. How they met policies & guidelines Pre-agreed upon? 3. To assist Rest of Organization locating gaps between Objectives & Results. 4. Formulate Plan for corrections

Benefits of HR Audit:
1. Identifies contribution of HR Departments to the organization 2. Improves HR Departments Professional Image. 3. Encourages greater Responsibility & Professionalism amongst members of the personnel department. 4. Classifies HR Departments Responsibilities & Duties. 5. Stimulates Uniformity of Personnel Policies & Practices.

6. Identifies Critical personnel problems.

7. Ensures Timely Legal Compliance Requirements. 8. Reduces HR Costs

Pitfalls of HR Audit:
1. Full audit may be time consuming 2. May not be as objective and impartial as desired 3. Impact of certain actions may not be clear

Audit of HR Function:
Involves all activities of HR Functions Major Areas: 1. Planning - Forecasting, 2. Scheduling; 3. Staffing & Development, 4. Organizing;

5. Motivation & commitment ;

6. Administration ; 7. Research & Innovation.

Auditors Role:
For each activity in the HR Audit functions Auditors must: 1 determine objective of activity. 2 Identify who is responsible for its performance. 3 Review the performance. 4 Develop action plan to correct deviation, between Results & Goal. 5 Follow up action plan. HR Evaluation must justify existence of department & its expenses. Department has no reason to function if fails to contribute to Company s bottom-line, Prune expenses to make department viable.

FIVE Approaches to HR Audit:

Auditors may choose any of the five approaches for the purpose of Evaluation.

1. Comparative Approach.

2. Outside Authority Approach.

3. Compliance Approach. 4. MBO Approach

Comparative Approach
Auditors Identify another Company as a MODEL. Result of their

Organization compared with those of Model Company.

Outside Authority Approach

Often, Auditors use standard set by Outside Consultant as BENCHMARK for comparison of own Results.

Compliance Approach
Auditors review Past Actions to determine if those activities comply with legal requirements and Company Policies, & Procedures. A Final approach is for Specialists & Operating Managers to set objectives in their areas of responsibility.

Management By Objectives Approach

creates Specific Goals against which performance can be measured. Then the Audit Team Researches ACTUAL PEERFORMANCE and COMPARES WITH THE OBJECTIVES.

Naturally any audit will be done annually. Though it is preferred to conduct Human Resource Audit annually, but it is advisable to conduct audit once in three years or five years, keeping in view the fact that the realization of the Organizational goals may not be identified within a year.

Audit Report
Audit comes to end with preparation of Report. Report may be Clean or Qualified. It is Qualified if HR Performance contains Gaps for which remedies suggested. Report is Clean where Performance is fairly Satisfactory


Findings of research are used to developed a picture of the organizations resource activities. For this information to be useful, it is compiled into audit report. The audit report is a comprehensive description of human resource activities that includes both commendations for effective practices and recommendations for improving practices that are less effective. Audit report often contain several sections. One part is for line managers, another is for manager of specific human resource function, and the final part is for the human resource manager.