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Energy

Energy is the capacity of a physical system to perform work. Energy exists in several forms such as heat, kinetic or mechanical energy, light, potential energy, electrical, or other forms. According to the law of conservation of energy, the total energy of a system remains constant, though energy may transform into another form.

Energy conservation

Energy conservation refers to efforts made to reduce energy consumption. Energy conservation can be achieved through increased efficient energy use, in conjunction with decreased energy consumption and/or reduced consumption from conventional energy sources. An energy conservation act was passed in 2001. Energy conservation can result in increased financial capital, environmental quality, national security, personal security, and human comfort. Individuals and organizations that are direct consumers of energy choose to conserve energy to reduce energy costs and promote economic security. Industrial and commercial users can increase energy use efficiency to maximize profit.

Why is Energy Conservation Important?

To save money by reducing our electrical bill and lower the stress we put on the environment by using less energy.
The climate crisis is rapidly getting worse and we need to reduce energy consumption even on an individual level.

Sustainable energy

Sustainable energy is the sustainable provision of energy that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Technologies that promote sustainable energy include renewable energy sources, such as hydroelectricity, solar energy, wind energy, wave power, geothermal energy, and tidal power, and also technologies designed to improve energy efficiency.

Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio fuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewable in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable.

Sources of energy conservation


Wind power Airflows can be used to run wind turbines Modern utility-scale wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 5 MW of rated power, although turbines with rated output of 1.53 MW have become the most common for commercial use Typical capacity factors are 20-40%, with values at the upper end of the

Hydropower

Energy in water can be harnessed and used. Since water is about 800 times denser than air, even a slow flowing stream of water, or moderate sea swell, can yield considerable amounts of energy. There are many forms of water energy: Hydroelectric energy is a term usually reserved for large-scale hydroelectric dams. Examples are the Grand Coulee Dam in Washington State and the Akosombo Dam in Ghana. Micro hydro systems are hydroelectric power installations that typically produce up to 100 kW of power. They are often used in water rich areas as a remote-area power supply (RAPS). Run-of-the-river hydroelectricity systems derive kinetic energy from

Solar energy

Solar energy is the energy derived from the sun through the form of solar radiation Solar powered electrical generation relies on photovoltaic and heat engines. A partial list of other solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial

Biomass
Biomass (plant material) is a renewable energy source because the energy it contains comes from the sun. Through the process of photosynthesis, plants capture the sun's energy. When the plants are burnt, they release the sun's energy they contain. In this way, biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for storing solar energy. As long as biomass is produced sustainably, with only as much used as is grown, the

Bio fuel
Biofuels include a wide range of fuels which are derived from biomass. The term covers solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases Liquid bio fuels include bio alcohols, such as bio ethanol, and oils, such as biodiesel. Gaseous bio fuels include biogas, landfill gas and synthetic gas. Biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's transport fuel in 2010.

Geothermal energy
The adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots geo, meaning earth, and thermos, meaning heat. Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth Thermal energy is the energy that determines the temperature of matter Earth's geothermal energy originates from the original formation of the planet (20%) and from radioactive decay of minerals (80%). The geothermal gradient, which is the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface.

Wave energy
Ocean waves contain large amount of energy, which can be extracted through Ocean winds, Ocean currents, Ocean Geothermal etc. if the barrage is built across the river, electricity can be obtained by by the flow of water through turbines as the tide rise and falls.

Alternative techniques used for energy conservation

Solar Water Heaters

Solar water heatersalso called solar domestic hot water systemscan be a cost-effective way to generate hot water for your home. They can be used in any climate, and the fuel they usesunshineis free.

How Solar Water Heaters Work

Solar cooker
A solar cooker, or solar oven, is a device which uses the energy of sunlight to heat food or drink to cook it or sterilize it. High-tech versions, for example electric ovens powered by solar cells, are possible, and have some advantages such as being able to work in diffuse light. However at present they are very unusual because they are expensive. The vast majority of the solar cookers presently in use are relatively cheap, low-tech devices. Because they use no fuel and cost nothing to operate It help reduce fuel costs for lowincome people, reduce air pollution and slow deforestation and desertification, caused by use of firewood for cooking

Solar cell

A solar cell (also called a photovoltaic cell) is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect. It is a form of photoelectric cell (in that its electrical characteristics-- e.g. current, voltage, or resistance- vary when light is incident upon it) which, when exposed to light, can generate and support an electric current without being attached to any external voltage source

Solar inverter
A solar inverter, or PV inverter, converts the variable direct current output of a photovoltaic (PV) solar panel into a utility frequency alternating current that can be fed into a commercial electrical grid or used by a local, off-grid electrical network. It is a critical component in a photovoltaic system, allowing the use of ordinary commercial appliances. Solar inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including

Fuel cell
A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. Hydrogen is the most common fuel, but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used. Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and oxygen to run, but they can produce electricity continually for as long as theseA inputs are vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen supplied. hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen fuelled space rockets, as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors

Other methods of energy conservation

Rainwater harvesting Rainwater harvesting is the accumulating and storing of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer. It has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation, as well as other typical uses. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses and local institutions can make an important contribution to the availability of drinking water

Greenhouse
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a building in which plants are grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to very large buildings. A miniature greenhouse is known as a cold frame. A greenhouse is a structure with different types of covering materials, such as a glass or plastic roof and frequently glass or plastic walls; it heats up because incoming visible solar radiation (for which the glass is transparent) from the sun is absorbed by plants, soil, and other things inside the building.

Some tips for energy conservation


Use efficient lighting Use energy efficient electric appliances Use an energy efficient computer Drive less Check your tyres Use water carefully Say no to plastic Move your Air-conditioning thermostat up 2 degrees Use renewable energy Plant more trees Turn off electronic devices Reuse & recycle

BIBLIOGRAPHY

INTERNET
Goi.6-Sep-2012. Recent trendsof .http://www.goi.com/latest-news/scenario-/385601

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NEWSPAPER AND ARTICLE


Dhavan Y.27 Apr 2012.conservation: High time.TOI(Mumbai).p16

Thank you