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Customers
with large
generators
being paid Rs.
21.15 per unit
for generating
Copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) verified by NREL to be as
efficient as 14.6% in 2006,

NANOSOLAR POWERSHEET
Cost/Wp=$
0.99

http://www.popsci.com/popsci/flat/bown/2007/index.html
Solar cell Price
and production
2008=3700 MW
GLOBAL
WARMING

e r a t
Temp
ure
All sources of Energy are
depleting
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ON AVERAGE AROUND THE WORLD, SUNLIGHT DELIVERS A BARREL OF OIL OF ENERGY ON EVERY
SQUARE METER OF LAND EVERY YEAR

Incoming solar
Su
en on nl
ti e igh
re h t
pl ou hi
an r w tti
n
a et’ ou g
w s ld th
ho en p e
le er ro ea
ye gy vid rth
Sri Lanka gets ar n e
ee th for
at ds e
6 fo
2
(kWh/m /day) r
7000kWh/year
Ultra
efficiency

with Solar
Sell power
during the Day
Buy power during
the night
CEB TARIFF
Domestic effective from Nov 2008

Fuel Adjustment Charge 30% on all unit charges except DP &


RP consumers consuming less than 90 units per month
Residential tiered tariff
30.00X1.3=Rs39
 
25.00X1.3=Rs32.50
 
16.00X1.3=Rs20.80
 
Rs7.50
Rs4.70
Rs3.00
Rs 39

Rs39/kWh
Technology
transfer to
rural Sri
Lanka
A solar water pumping system has
been installed in Kaduruwewa in
the Kurunegala district, ably
guided by APSL stalwart Prof. I M
Dharmadasa, and supported by
the Helasarana organisation. The
pumping system provides about
500 watts of power to pump clean
Annual Savings Before
.
.

and After
.

1000
0 .
1 2 3 4
5

3
Accumulated Net
Savings
.

8000

6000

4000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12 13
How Storage will Help Smoothing
of Out Put

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101
Conversion
kWh/m²•y
factor
W/m²
kWh/kWp•y
41.66666
kW·h/(m²·day)

41.66666
sun hours/day

0.1140796
W/m²
0.1521061
kW·h/(m²·day 0.024 1 1
0.0027379 0.0036505 sun hours/day
0.024 1 1 0.0027379 0.003
kWh/m²•y 8.765813 365.2422 365.2422
1 1.333333
kWh/kWp•y 6.574360 273.9316 273.9316 0.75
Solar Radiation in W/m
sq
Efficiency of
Solar cells
2
009

1234
5

123456
71314
Cost of Generation
by Solar
CEB DOM tariff
for>600kWh/m

Lo
w Kerawalapiti
sh sun
ine ya Cost in Jan
GO
2009
OD
SU
CEB Pays private 1
AR N SH MW Gen
EA INE CEB DOM
Tariff>90kWh/m
SUN POWER PRODUCTION
vs LOAD PROFILE
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67

A Typical
CEB Load
curve
The annual results for Sri Lanka, which range from 4.5 to 6.0 kWh/m2/day,
are consistent with, and slightly higher than earlier studies using sunshine
recorders, which gave results of 4.2 to 5.6 kWh/m2/day.
The slightly higher results are due most likely to the fact that, for Sri Lanka,
we chose to
calculate the resource for a flat plate collector tilted to latitude, rather than
the more
http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/34645.pdf
http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/codes_algs/PVWATTS/version1/#map

With a 4kW system we can get this


amount of Energy
• Radiation Energy Energy
• (kWh/m2/day) (kWh) Axis tracking per Watt/day
• Colombo Ratmalana
• 6.58      7411  2 1.85 22.5% Extra
• 6.35      7172  1 1.79
• 5.38      6028  0 1.51
• Colombo/Katunayake
• 6.71      7632  2 23.56% Extra
• 6.47      7377  1
• 5.46      6177  0
• Hambantota
• 7.32      8494 2 2.12 29% Extra
• 7.00      8140  1
• 5.71     6583  0
• Trincomalee (AFB)
Solar Power Costs for Sri
Lanka
Power needed 1577 kWh/yr OR 131 kWh/Month AC output
needed 0.75 kW
Module area 1.33 sq.ft Area needed 11 sq.ft No of Modules
8 Power per module 100 watts DC power 789 watts Inverter
efficiency 95 % AC power 750 watts
Module cost rate $2.00 watt Module Cost $1,500
Rs/house 178,406 Inverter
(assuming today’s exchange rate)
cost rate $0.50 watts Inverter cost $395 Installation cost rate
$0.50 per watt Installation cost $395 Capacity factor 24 % Sri
Lanka 2102.4 kWh/Year/kW Output per year 1577 kWh
Degradation rate -0.30 %/Output after year: 25 Total power
delivered – kWh 37,991
Cost per kWh amortized with out
batteries = $0.11 (With net metering no Batteries
NANO ORGANIC PV CELL
(HIGH EFFICIENCY)
Flexible Plastic
PV Cell

123456
Ultra Triple Junction
Solar Cells
Solar

1234
56
Improving efficiency
of Cells

123456
7
The SolarWall®
PV/thermal solar system
is housed on the roof of
a service
centre and health clinic
for the
Olympic athletes in
Beijing
PV module efficiency is typically between
8-20%.
What happens to the rest of the sun’s
energy that
shines on the panels? Most of it is
converted into
heat energy, which normally is lost and
provides
no value to the system owner. As well, th
heat build-up behind PV modules reduces
the electrical
output by 0.4-0.5% for every 1°C above
Benefits of Solar Cell
Energy a Zero Emission
• More manual labor jobs will be created
• The value of the property will go up
• By distributed generation day peak will come down. Transmission and Distribution
losses will be reduced.
• Reduction of costly oil imports to the country
• Reduction of costly Gas turbine generation and costly Private
power.
• Reduction of Global warming
• Reduction of polluting CO2 and other CHS Gasses
• Reduction of wasteful use of water in thermal Power stations
• With net metering the large homes will benefit more on reducing there
costly electricity bills.
• Combined with energy efficiency and energy saving and use of LED lamps the night
peak can also be reduced to benefit the utility.
• Should be able to get Renewable Energy Certificates and Carbon trading
• Low interest soft loans will become available from the local banks like for Rural solar
home systems
• A mental satisfaction that we have not contributed to Pollution
and Global warming.
• It is expected that bilateral and multilateral finance and market stimulation
programs based on best service at least cost will be soon available

Distributed Generation: the Next Step in Smart


SOLAR CELLS WITH LED
123
LAMPS
456
7

20%
efficiency =
200W/m2 or
20W/ft2.
LED lamp
LIFESPAN of
up to 50,000
hours!
Up to 90%
Solar Powered LED
Lantern
Solar street lamps in
China
D Light India
At INDRs1100/lamp with 2W Solar
panel
Solar power has several
advantages
• Economical Benefits:
• The energy from the sun is practically free, after the initial investment has been
recovered
• Solar energy reduces our dependence on foreign or centralized conventional source of
energy
• Solar energy supports local jobs and creates wealth, which elevates local economies

• Environmentally Friendly:
• Solar energy is clean, quiet, renewable and sustainable unlike other conventional energy
sources such as gas, oil, and coal
• Solar energy does not contribute to global warming, acid rain, or smog, on the contrary, it
helps to lower harmful green house gas emissions
•  
• Independent/Semi-Independent:
• Solar energy reduces our dependence on foreign or centralized sources of energy
• Solar energy can reduce your electric bill, and also supply your property with electricity in
the event of a power outage
• Solar energy systems can operate entirely independent from a power or gas grid;
therefore systems can be installed in remote location
•  
Toyota 2010 Solar Roof
Prius
Toyota has announced that the next
redesign of their highly successful
hybrid Prius automobile will include
solar panels on its roof
A photo of the new world record
solar cell.

The sunlight was concentrated 454-times onto a 5 mm² multi-


junction solar cell composed of GaInP/GaInAs/ Ge (gallium indium
(© Fraunhofer phosphide, gallium indium arsenide on a germanium substrate) a
ISE)
A new
phone of
Samsung
"Blue
Earth"
powered by
solar
energy is
seen at the
Mobile
World
Congress in
Barcelona,
Spain,
Monday,
Feb. 16,
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar
Energy Systems (ISE) in Freiburg have reached a
record 41.1 percent efficiency
http://www.news.com.au/heraldsun/story/0,21985,25105900-
2862,00.html
First Solar first to US$1 per
watt manufacturing cost
http://www.pv-
tech.org/news/_a/first_solar_first_to_us1_per_watt_manufacturing_co
st/
Japan
Sri Lanaka
Than
gunda12@yahoo.com

k you
vkgnana@gmail.com
Bicycle Powered
Generator
http://www.mattshaver.com/bikegen/index.htm Ind
Rs.4000