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Operational and Information system And Failures of past DSS

Presented By Neha (007) Ashu (015) Anuradha (025) Himani (048)

Operational system Informational System Difference between Operational system and Informational System

Decision support system

Failures of past DSS

Used to process organization. the day-to-day transactions of an Operational databases are normally "relational" - not "dimensional". Designed for operational, data entry purposes Are not well suited for online queries and analytics. Need to integrate organizations. operational data from external

The challenge for data warehousing Quickly consolidate, cleanse and integrate data.

ETL Process
ETL Technology is an important component of the Data Warehousing Architecture. The ETL software extracts data, transforms values of inconsistent data, filters data and loads data into a target database. The scheduling of ETL jobs is critical.

DW Staging Area
Temporary location where data from source systems is copied.
Mainly required for timing reasons. Not feasible to extract all the data from all Operational databases at exactly the same time. For example Sales data on a daily basis For financial data requires a month-end reconciliation process.

Not all business require a Data Warehouse Staging Area.

Data Mart
Use by groups of decision makers in the organizations. Data marts can be dimensional or relational. Each Data Mart can contain different combinations of tables, columns and rows from the Enterprise Data Warehouse.

For example The Personnel Department might need to see all details about employees, whereas data such as "salary" or "home address" might not be appropriate for a Data Mart that focuses on Sales.
Some Data Mart need to be refreshed daily, whereas user might want refreshes only monthly

An information system is a collection of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that are designed to generate information that supports the day-to-day, short-range, and long-range activities of users in an organization. An information system (IS) is any combination of information technology and people's activities that support operations, management and decision making.


Personnel - which consists of IT specialists Hardware - which consists of all the physical aspects of an IS Software - which consists of System Software, Application Software
and Utility Software

Networks - which consists of communication media and network


Data - which consists of all the knowledge and databases in the IS


1. Office Information Systems
An office information system, or OIS (pronounced oh-eye-ess), is an information system that uses hardware, software and networks to enhance work flow and facilitate communications among employees. 2. Transaction Processing Systems A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data generated during an organizations day-to-day transactions. A transaction is a business activity such as a deposit, payment, order or reservation.


3. Management Information Systems
A management information system, or MIS is an information system that generates accurate, timely and organized information so managers and other users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities, and track progress. 4. Decision Support Systems A decision support system (DSS) is an information system designed to help users reach a decision when a decision-making situation arises. 5. Expert Systems An expert system is an information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision-making processes for those who have less expertise.


Operational system basically records the day-to day transaction of the organization while Informational system is used to make long term, directional decisions. In operational system , there is no particular hierarchy of the types of operational system but information system is a pyramid of systems that reflected the hierarchy of the organization.

An operational system is a term used in data warehousing while the information systems is the study of complementary networks of hardware and software.

The operational system contains detailed data, almost exclusively while informational system contains a mixture of both detailed data and summary data.

Operational system data is typically available across a wide network , available to many people who may need access to the data while the informational system data is typically privately held and is available to only a few people
The operational system contains transactions that are small , use few resources while the informational system transactions are large and use many resources.

Types of OS are Batch processing, operating system, real time operating system, multiuser operating system etc while types of IS are TPS MIS, DSS etc


A decision support system (DSS) is a computerbased information system that supports business or organizational decision support activities. Decision support systems can be either fully computerized , human or a combination of both.

Technological knowledge of users is required
Especially for small business firms

Hard to Quantify Factors

For example, future interest rates, new legislation or product shelf life

Hard to collect all of related data

Some data are not recorded correctly Some data cannot be recorded

Processing Model Limitations and Assumptions

Not fully aware of the limitations or assumptions

System design failures

Each individual users has different problems

Organization Resistance
Resistance to new technology Fear of learning new system