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PART I

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
(基本原理)

In part I, we cover some of the basic principles that


apply to aerodynamics in general. These are the
pillars on which all of aerodynamics is based.
Chapter 1 LIFT AND DRAG
Section 1 Characteristics of
Airflow
1. Airflow and relative airflow
Airflow means moving stream of air.

The motion of air relative to an object is called


relative airflow, which is equal to the object
movement in speed and opposite in direction.

The force between an object and the airflow


caused by the relative motion is called
aerodynamic force
2. Streamline and streamline pattern

Streamline means the well-defined continuous paths


of the
particles of the airflow in a steady air stream.

reamline pattern is a diagram composed of many streamlin


e streamline pattern can be directly observed in the smoke
nd tunnel test.
The air particles between the two streamlines seem to
flow along the tube, usually the tube composed of
streamlines is known as stream tube.
Streamline pattern displays the flowing of the air stream. In the
low-speed airflow, the streamline pattern depends only on an
object’s shape and its relative position in the airflow.

(1) Effect of the shape of an object on the streamline


pattern
The feature is that the stream tube is thicker at
the front of an object, thinner at the upper and
lower convex parts of the object and an eddy zone
is formed behind it.
(2) Effect of the relative position of an object in the
airflow on the streamline pattern
Wing chord: the joining line from
the leading edge to the trailing
edge of an aerofoil.
The angle between the wing
chord
and the direction of the relative
α
airflow (or the aircraft moving
direction) is called angle of
Through )test it can be seen that the streamline
attack,(
pattern varies with the relative position of an object
with the same shape in the airflow.
3. Principle of airflow continuity
When the air passes continuously and steadily
through a convergent-divergent pipe, because
the air in any part of the pipe can neither break
off nor squeeze there, the air mass flowing into
section 1 and that flowing out of section 2 at the
same unit time is equal, that is to say, the air
mass(i.e. the airflow)passing through each
section per second is equal. This is known as the
principle of the airflow continuity.
Where : ρ=Air density
V=Speed of air passing through the section

A=Sectional area

The above formula shows that the density of the air flowing
a low speed remains almost constant and the speed of the
airflow is in inverse proportion to the area of the section it ha
lown, i.e. the air flows faster at the convergent part than the
divergent part .
4. Bernoulli’s theorem
Bernoulli’s theorem,
defining the relationship
between the pressure and the
flowing speed of the fluid in
motion, is one of the basic
theorems for studying the
characteristics of the airflow.
The change of air
pressure with flowing speed
can also be explained by
the relations of the static
pressure, dynamic pressure
and pitot pressure.
tatic pressure(p): The static pressure means the pressure tha
the air acts on the objects surface.
For example, the atmospheric pressure is a
manifestation of static pressure.
Dynamic pressure(q): It exists in the flowing air, which
can be
turned into static pressure and applied
on
the surface of an object only when the
airflow is obstructed and its speed
reduced. ρ
The magnitude of dynamic pressure is
directly proportional to the air
tot pressure(p0): it is the sum of static pressure and dynamic
density( ) and to the square of
airflow pressure in the airflow.
velocity(V), and its value is .
In the steady airflow, the sum of static pressure
and dynamic pressure of air on every section of
the same stream tube maintains constant. This
constant value is just the pitot pressure of the
air. The above relations can be expressed by
the following formula:

That is to say, the air pressure is low at the


place where the air flowing speed is fast, and
vice versa. This is the content of Bernoulli’s
theorem.
Section 2 Lift
Lift is a kind of aerodynamic forces, supporting the
aircraft in flight.
1. Generation of lift
From the streamline pattern of the air flowing over
the wing(Fig.1-7), it can be seen that the air is
divided into the upper and lower parts at the leading
edge of the wing, and flowing over the upper and
lower surfaces of the wing respectively and, joining
together again at the trailing edge of the wing and
flowing backward.
Because the upper surface of the wing is somewhat
convex, so the stream tube becomes thinner, the air
flowing speeds up and the pressure drops; the
stream tube on the lower surface of the wing
becomes thicker, the flowing speed decreases and
the pressure increases. A pressure differential
perpendicular to the moving direction is therefore
produced between the upper and lower wing surfaces
and forms the lift. Wing lift is thus the sum total
of the pressure differential between all the
upper and lower sections of the wing.
The intersection point
of the lift and wing
chord is called
----center of
pressure.
The direction of
lift is
perpendicular to
that of the
aircraft
movement. And
because the left
and right wings
are symmetric,
the
The wing lift lift
aircraft is is therefore within the aircraft symmetry
equal
plane in the divides the aircraft into two of the left and
(which
normal flight.
right symmetric sections)as shown in Fig.1-8.
To understand further the magnitude of force borne by
the each position of the wing, it is necessary to know the
pressure distribution on the wing surfaces. The
differences between on each point of the wing section
and atmospheric pressure can be measured by way of
test, which are drawn out along the vertical
direction of wing section by using
the line segments with arrows.
All the pressure being lower than
the atmospheric is called suction
or negative pressure, which is
indicated with the direction of
arrow facing outward. All the
pressure being higher than the
atmospheric pressure is called
positive pressure, which is
indicatedtowith
pointing thethe
wing
direction
surface.ofAnd then, link the end-
arrow of all arrows together by using a smooth curved
points
line and, a pressure distribution diagram is thus
constituted. The point at which the pressure is the
lowest(i.e. suction is maximum)on the diagram is called
minimum pressure point. At the leading edge the
flowing speed is zero, i.e. a point at which the pressure
From the pressure distribution diagram of the wing, it
can be seen that the aircraft lift is produced primarily by
depending on the effect of suction of the upper wing
surface but not mainly depending on the effect of the
positive pressure on the lower wing surface.
2. The factors affecting lift
(1) Effect of angle of attack on lift
Within the extent of the angle of attack, lift
increases with the increase in the angle of attack.
Because with the increase of the angle of attack, the
bending of the streamlines at the front of the upper
wing surface increases, causing the stream tube to
contract more, the flowing speed to increase and
the pressure to reduce further(the suction becomes
greater). At the same time, the stream tube under
the wing become thicker, the flowing speed
decreases and the pressure increases(Fig.1-11 A.B.).
The pressure differential between the upper and
lower wing surfaces increases, the lift is therefore
increased. When the angle of attack increases to a
fixed extent, the lift will increase to the
maximum(Fig.1-11 C). If the angle of attack is
increased beyond that angle, on the contrary, the lift
will decrease(the causes will be analysed in section
(2) Effect of flying speed on lift
The higher the flying speed, the greater the lift.
Experiment proves that if the speed is doubled, the lift
will be quadrupled; and the speed is tripled, the lift will
be increased to nine times, i.e. the lift is directly
proportional to the square of the flying speed.

(3) Effect of air density on lift


Lift increases with the increase in air density.
Experiment proves that when the air density is
doubled, and so will be the lift, i.e. the lift is directly
proportional to the air density.
(4) Effect of the wing area on lift
The bigger the wing area is, the greater the area
for producing the suction on the upper wing surface
and the positive pressure on the lower wing surface
will be and so is the sum total of pressure differential
between the upper and lower wing surfaces, and the
lift is therefore great. The lift is directly proportional
to the wing area.
(5) Effect of the shape of airfoil on lift

The lift varies with the shape of airfoil(airfoil in


short).
For example, comparing the flat-convex wing with
biconvex wing, of which their thickness and length
of wing chord are the same, under the condition of
the same angle of attack, because the bending of
upper surface of the flat-convex wing is great, the
stream tube on it is thus rather thin, flowing speed
is great and the pressure is comparatively low,
while the stream tube on the lower surface is rather
thick, so the flowing speed is low and the pressure
is comparatively high. Therefore, the lift of the flat-
convex wing is greater than that of the biconvex
wing.(Fig1-12)
3. The formula and coefficient curve of lift
In accordance with the above analysis, the lift (L)
α
depends on the angle ρ ), air
of attack( ), flight speed(V
density( ),wing area(S ) and airfoil. The summarization
of its changing law gives us the following lift formula:

Where : is the lift coefficient.

The lift coefficient is determined through test. It


represents comprehensively the effect of angle of
attack and airfoil on the lift.
Usually , an aircraft does not change its airfoil during
flight. At this time, the change of the lift coefficient is
determined by the magnitude of angle of attack. The
lift coefficients of different angles of attack can be
obtained through the wind tunnel test. The lift
coefficients of different angles of attack for Type-6
Primary Trainer are listed below:
α -1 0 2 6 8.9 10 14 16 18 19 20
o o o o o o o o o o o

0.07 0.22 0.52 0.73 0.82 1.12 1.27 1.36 1.37 1.35
0 3 2 8 2

According to the lift coefficients and angles of attack


given in the above table, a curve of the lift coefficient
for the aircraft can be drawn, as shown in Fig.1-13.
From the curve of lift
coefficient, we can see
that:
(1) Zero-lift angle of attack:
The angle of attack with
zero lift is called zero-lift
angle of attack, which is
equivalent to the angle of
attack corresponded by
the intersection point
between the curve and
axis of abscissa in the
(2) Critical angle of attack:
graph.
The angle of attack with
maximum lift coefficient
is called critical angle of
attack,
i.e. the angle of attack corresponded by the highest
point of the curve in the graph.(19o for Type-6 Primary
Trainer).
(3) The changing law of the lift coefficient with angle of
attack:
The lift coefficient increases with the increase of
angle of attack starting from zero-lift angle of
attack, and reaches its maximum value at the
critical angle of attack, and changes to rapid
decrease and the curve bends downward with the
increase of angle of attack exceeding the critical
angle of attack.
Section 3 Drag
Drag is an aerodynamic force too, which resists the
aircraft from moving forward and its direction is
opposite to that of the aircraft motion.
1. Generation of drag
There are mainly three kinds of drags produced by
the aircraft during flight.
(1) Friction drag
Viscosity is the tendency of air. During flight, the air
adhering to the aircraft surfaces over which it is
flowing will rub against the aircraft surfaces, resulting
in a drag which is called friction drag.
(2) Pressure drag
The air must meet obstruction at the leading edge of
the wing of an aircraft during flight, its speed is
reduced and pressure increased; and at the trailing
edge, there is a generation of eddy zone where the air
pressure is reduced, therefore a pressure differential is
created between the leading and trailing edges,
forming a drag which is called pressure drag(Fig.1-14).
By analogy, the pressure drag can also be produced on
the fuselage and tail, etc.
(2) Lift dependent drag
The lift dependent drag is caused by lift, or in another
word, it is “induced” by the generation of lift on the
wing, which is therefore called lift dependent drag.
When the wing is producing lift, the pressure on the
lower surface is higher than on the upper surface, so
the air caused to spill around the wing tips from the
lower surface to the upper surface, the air on the wing
tip is thus made to twist, as a result, the tip eddy is
formed(Fig.1-15).
The tip eddy makes the air flowing over the wing
produce a downward speed which is called downwash
speed. The resultant speed of the downwash speed and
head-on airflow speed inclines downward. This airflow
with the speed direction inclined downward is called
downwash flow. Affected by the downwash speed, the
head-on airflow will incline downward and the lift
produced will slant rearwards accordingly, as L’ shown in
Fig.1-16. With regard to the head-on airflow(moving
direction), the parallel component force of L’ will also
play a role of drag(Dinduced in the figure) with exception of
its vertical component L which acts as lift, and this drag
is called lift dependent drag.
2. The factors affecting the drag and drag
formula
Because both lift and drag are the aerodynamic forces,
the factors affecting the drag are basically the same as
those affecting the lift, that is to say, the drag is
directly proportional to the square of the speed, air
density and wing area; it is also related to the angle of
attack, wing shape, etc. The drag can be expressed by
the following formula:

Where: is the drag coefficient.


3. The drag coefficient and its curve
The meaning of the drag coefficient is basically the
same as that of the lift coefficient. It expresses
comprehensively the effect of factors of the angle of
attack and aircraft shape on the drag. To an aircraft,
usually its configuration is constant, so the drag
coefficient depends on the magnitude of the angle of
attack.
The changing law of the drag
coefficient with the angle of
attack can be expressed by the
curve of the drag coefficient as
shown in Fig.1-17. From the
curve of the drag coefficient,
we can see that the same
amount of increase in the
angle of attack, the drag
coefficient increases less in the
range of low angle of attack,
but in the range of high angle
of attack, the drag coefficient
increases more. because both
After exceeding
lift dependent the and
drag critical angle of attack, the drag
coefficient will would
pressure drag increase
alsomuch more and, this is because
the eddy zone expands rapidly and the pressure drag
increase;
increases with the increase of angle of attack.
Section 4 Variation of Aerodynamic
Force of the Aircraft After
Exceeding the Critical Angle of
Attack
1. Boundary
layer
When the air is flowing over the wing, there will be an
air flowing layer with the gradual reduction of airflow
speed because of the viscous friction between the air
and object surface. This flowing layer is known as the
boundary layer.
2. Phenomenon of airflow separation
The air flows from
over the minimum
pressure point on the
upper wing surface to
the wing trailing
speed goes
edge, the down progressively, the travelling pressure
airflow
will become greater and greater accordingly and so
does the pressure in the boundary layer. Hence, under
the action of reverse pressure differential, the flowing of
air in the boundary layer will be retarded so the speed
is caused to reduce gradually, and even the air in the
boundary layer at the rear of the wing might be forced
to flow back. As a result, the adverse flowing air and
rearward flowing air in the boundary layer will collide
themselves, causing the airflow in the boundary layer to
separate from the wing surface ,an airflow separation
phenomenon is formed and many eddies produced.
At the low angle of attack, the effect of reverse
pressure differential in the boundary layer is less,
the adverse flow is weak and the separation point
is therefore close to the trailing edge; but with the
increase in the angle of attack, the reverse
pressure differential in the boundary layer will also
increase and the adverse flow becomes stronger,
the separation point is thus made to move forward
and the eddy zone to expand forward; after
exceeding the critical angle of attack, the reverse
pressure differential will become even greater and
the separation point will move forward suddenly
and greatly and, the eddy zone will expand
forward rapidly as well.
1. Reasons for the reduction of the lift
coefficient and sudden increase of the
drag coefficient after exceeding the
critical angle of attack
After exceeding the critical angle of attack, the
airflow separation point suddenly moves forward to
the place near the wing leading edge and the eddy
zone becomes greater. At this moment, the stream
tubes at the front of the upper surface become thicker,
the flowing speed decreases and the suction force
reduces (comparing C with D in Fig. 1-11) and this is of
a help to reducing the lift coefficient, but in the eddy
zone at the rear of the wing, the suction force
increases slightly and it is of a help to increasing the
lift coefficient. It is obvious that the effects of the
above two factors on the lift coefficient are
contradictory to each other.
But after exceeding the critical angle of attack, the
suction force at the front of the upper wing surface
drops rather more, thus its effect on the lift coefficient
is principal, the lift coefficient is therefore made to
reduce.
After exceeding the critical angle of attack, the
pressure is reduced slightly within a certain range of
the wing trailing edge; but the flowing speed at the
front of the lower wing surface is very low and the
pressure is increased because of the increase in the
angle of attack. Therefore, the pressure differential
between the leading and trailing edges of the wing is
increased and the drag coefficient will gain a sudden
increase.
Section 5 Lift-drag Ratio
Lift-drag ratio (K) is the ratio between lift and drag
at the same angle of attack. The higher the ratio
is, the less the drag will be in a condition to obtain
the same lift. The formula of the lift-drag ratio is:

From the above formula, we can see that the lift-drag


ratio is the ratio between the coefficients of lift and
drag at the same angle of attack.
Because the coefficients of lift and drag vary mainly
with the angle of attack, so does the lift-drag ratio.
The proved lift-drag ratio for Type-6 Primary Trainer
at different angles of attack is as follows:
α -1o 0o 2o 6o 8 10 14 16 18 19 20
o
.9 o o o o o o
0 0.07
3
0.22
2
0.52 0.73 0.82
8 2
1.12 1.27 1.36 1.37 1.35

0.03 0.07 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.14 0.17 0.21 0.23 0.26
6 3 1 4 6 7 4 8 6 7 1
5.43 8.08 8.56 8.51 7.78 7.15 6.30 5.78 5.17
0 2
From the above table it can be seen that:
When the angle of attack increases progressively
from low to high, the increased multiples of the lift
coefficient are more than that of the drag coefficient, so
the lift-drag ratio increases gradually and to the
maximum when the angle of attack increases to 8.9o,
and any further increase in the angle of attack would
First flight of Wright brothers
Dec. 17, 1903
Wilbur and Orville Wright's Wright Flyer
was the first successful airplane. On
December 17, 1903, at Kitty Hawk, North
Carolina, Orville Wright flew the first
heavier-than-air machine in a powered,
controlled, and sustained flight. The Flyer,
constructed of wood, wire, and muslin, went
a distance of 120 feet in 12 seconds. It was a
tremendous success, coming from a long
series of aeronautics experiments that the
Wright Brothers started in 1899 with a kite.
At the rear of the 1903 Wright Flyer one finds a pair
of pusher propellers. The propellers are long, thin,
twisted pieces of wood which are spun at high speed.
Control of roll: WING WARP
Overview of Wright Brothers Discoveries
Aerodynamic heating of the reentry
vehicle

ICBMs reentry the atmosphere at the


speeds of from 6 to 6.7km/s.
The aerodynamic heating of the reentry
vehicles becomes severe, the cover of the
war head will be heated up to 10,000K.
Blunt reentry body design can minimize the
aerodynamic heating problem.
1.2 Aerodynamics:Classification
and Practical Objectives
( 空气动力学:分类和应用目标)
Distinction of solids, liquids, and
gases
Practical applications in
engineering
Solids, liquids, and gases in a container

The solid object will not change: its shape and


boundaries will remind the same.
The liquid will change its shape to conform to that of
the container and will take on the same boundaries
as the container up to the maximum depth of the
liquid.
The gas will completely fill the container, taking on
the same boundaries as the container.
Solid and “fluid”(a liquid or a gas) under
a tangential force == deformation
固体和 流体在 受到 剪应力 时, 各自形 状所 发生的 变
化方式 截然不 同。
Under a force applied tangentially to the surface of a
solid body, the solid body will undergo a finite
deformation, and the tangential force per unit area—
the shear stress—will usually be proportional to the
amount of deformation.
If the case happens for a fluid, then, the fluid will
experience a continuously increasing deformation and
the shear stress will usually be proportional to the rate
of the deformation.
τ: Shear stress 剪应力
Solid τ ∝θ
: θ: Deformation 变形
fluid: τ ∝ θ θ : Rate of deformation 变
Mechanics distinction of solids, liquids, and
gases
Distinction of solids, liquids, and gases
respects to the intermolecular forces
Fluid dynamics is subdivided into three
areas:
Hydrodynamics --- flow of liquids
Gas dynamics --- flow of gases
Aerodynamics --- flow of air
Practical objectives of
Aerodynamics
1. The prediction of forces and moments on
and heat transfer to, bodies moving
through a fluid.
2. Determination of flows moving internally
through ducts
3. External aerodynamics
4. Internal aerodynamics
1.3 Road Map of this chapter
What’s the usage of the road
map
 At the beginning of each chapter,
road map give you the sense for you
get to know where you are, where
you are going, and how can you get
there
 Show the interrelationship of the
materials in the chapter
 At the end of the chapter, after you
look back over the road map, you
1.4 Some fundamental
Aerodynamic Variables
1. Aerodynamic variables are something like
technical vocabulary for the physical
science and engineering understanding
2. First introduced aerodynamic variables:
pressure,density,temperature, and flow
velocity
The velocity description of a fluid is quite
different to that of a solid body.
Velocity of a flowing gas at any fixed point B in space
is the velocity of a small fluid element as it sweeps
through B.
1.5 Aerodynamic forces and
moments
Aerodynamic forces and moments on a
moving body are due to only two basic
sources:
1. Pressure distribution over the body
surface
2. Shear stress distribution over the body
surface
Both pressure and shear stress have
dimensions of force per unit area.
pressure acts normal to the body surface.
shear stress acts tangential to the
surface.
The net effect of the pressure and shear
stress distribution results in a
aerodynamic force R and moment M on
the body.
 The resultant force R can be split into
components
L = lift : component of R perpendicularV∞to
D = drag : components of R parallel V
to

(wind system)

N = normal force :
component of R perpendicular to c
A = axial force :
components of R parallel to c
(body system)
After the pressure and shear stress
distributions being defined, and the geometry
shape of the body being known, the resultant
aerodynamic force can be obtained by the
integration of the pressure and shear stress
distributions along the surface of the body.
From Eqs. (1.7),(1.8) and (1.11), we can see
clearly, that the sources of the aerodynamic
lift, drag, and moments on a body are the
pressure and shear stress distribution
integrated over the body.

The basic task of theoretical aerodynamics is


to calculate p(s) and τ(s) for a given body
shape and freestream conditions, and then
obtain the aerodynamic forces and moments
with the use of Eqs. (1.7),(1.8) and (1.11)
 Dimensionless aerodynamic force and
moment coefficients are even more
important than the aerodynamic forces
and moments.
Definition ofρ ∞ and
V∞
density and velocity in the freestream,
which is far ahead of the body.

Definition of dynamic pressure


1
q∞ = ρ ∞V∞2

2
The dynamic pressure has the unit of
pressure
Definition of dimensionless force and
moment coefficients

L
Lift coefficient: CL =
q∞ S

D
Drag coefficient: C D =
q∞ S

N
Normal force coefficient: C N =
q∞ S
N
Axial force coefficient: C N =
q∞ S
M
Moment coefficient: CM =
q∞ Sl

S : reference area
l : reference length
Definition ofS andl may be different for
different shapes of the body being
concerned.
The symbols in capital letters, such as
C L , C D , C M , C N and C A
represents the force and moment coefficients
for a three-dimensional body.

The symbols in lowercase letters


cl , cd and cm
denote the force and moment coefficients for
a two-dimensional body
' ' '
L D M
cl = , cd = , cm = 2
S = c(1)
q∞ c q∞ c q∞ c
' ' '
L , D , M are force and moments per unit span
Two additional dimensionless quantities of
immediate use are
p − p∞
Pressure coefficient Cp =
q∞
τ
Skin friction cf =
coefficient q∞

Where p∞ is the free stream


pressure
1.6 Center of pressure (压力
中心)
The center of the pressure is a point on the
body about which the aerodynamic moment
contributed by the pressure and shear stress
distributions is equal to zero.
'
M
If LE is defined as the moment generated by
the distributed loads,Nand
'
is the
component of the resultant force, then the
xcpcenter must be located
pressure
downstream of the leading ' edge
M
xcp = − LE
'
N
L' ≈ N '
If the angle of attack is small, ,thus

'
M
xcp = − LE
'
L
It is clear to see that as lift approaches to
zero, the center of pressure moves to infinity.
So, the center of pressure is not always a
convenient concept in aerodynamics. There
are other ways to define the force-and-
moment system on an airfoil

M '
LE = −L c 4 + M
' '
c4 = − xcp L
'
1.7 Dimensional analysis:
The Buchingham PI
theorem (量纲分析: PI 定理)
※What physical quantities determine the
variation of the aerodynamic forces and
moments? On a physical, intuitive basis, we
expect R is depend on:
1. Freestream velocity
2. Freestream density
3. Viscosity of the fluid
4. The size of the body
5. The compressibility of the fluid
R = f ( ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, µ ∞ , a∞ ) (1.23)
※ How to find a precise functional relation for
the equation above? Execute huge amount of
wind tunnel experiment might be one way.

Is there any other way can do more


effectively?

Method of dimensional analysis


※An obvious fact for the dimensional analysis

ψ +η + ζ = φ
All the terms in this physical relation must
have the same dimensions
※Buckingham PI theorem
1. Let K to be the number of fundamental
dimensions required to describe the physical
variables
P1 , P2 , , PN
2. Let represent N physical variables
in the physical relation
f1 ( P1 , P2 ,  PN ) = 0
3. Then the physical relation can be
reexpressed as a relation of (N-K)
dimensionless products.

f 2 (Π1 , Π 2 , Π N −K ) = 0
4. Every product is a dimensionless product of
a set of K physical variables plus one other
physical variable.
Π1 = f 3 ( P1 , P2 , PK , PK +1 )
Π 2 = f 4 ( P1 , P2 ,  PK , PK + 2 )

Π N − K = f 5 ( P1 , P2 ,  PK , PN )
5. P1 , P2 , PK is called repeating variables. These
variables should include all the K dimensions
used in the problem.
※Aerodynamic force on a given body at a given
angle of attack.
1. Eq. (1.23)

R = f ( ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, µ ∞ , a∞ ) (1.23)
can be expressed as

g ( R, ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, µ ∞ , a∞ ) = 0 (1.27)

2. Following Buckingham theorem and our


physical intuition, the fundamental dimensions
are m,l and t .
Hence, K=3
3. The physical variables and their
dimensions are
[ R ] = mlt , [ ρ ∞ ] = ml , [V∞ ] = lt ,
−2 −3 −1

[c] = l , [ µ ∞ ] = ml t , [a∞ ] = lt
−1 −1 −1

and N=6

4. As explained by Buckingham theorem,


Eq.(1.27) can be reexpressed in terms of N-
Π
K=3 dimensionless
products, that is
f 2 (Π 1 , Π 2 , Π 3 ) = 0 (1.28)
5. Now, we choseρ ∞ ,V∞ , c as repeating
Π
variables, from Eq.(1.26), these products
are

Π1 = f 3 ( ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, R )

Π 2 = f 4 ( ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, µ ∞ )

Π 3 = f 5 ( ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, a∞ )
5. Assume

Π1 = ρ V c R
d b e
∞ ∞
in dimensional form
[ Π1 ] = (ml −3 d −1 b e
) (lt ) (l ) (mlt ) −2

6. As Π1 is dimensionless, then
for m : d +1 = 0
for l : − 3d + b + e + 1 = 0
for t : −b−2 = 0
7. The above Equations give d=-1,b=-2,and e=-
2 , then we have
R
Π 1 = Rρ V c −1 − 2 − 2
∞ ∞ =
ρ ∞V∞ c
2 2
or R R
Π1 = =
1 q S
ρ ∞V∞ S
2 ∞
2
where S is defined as reference area
Π1 is a force coefficient, definedCas
R

8. In the same way, we can obtain the


remaining products as follows

ρ ∞V∞ c
Π2 = Reynolds Number 雷
µ∞ 诺数
V∞
Π3 = Mach Number 马赫数
a∞
9. Inserting all theΠ products into Eq.
(1.28) R ρ ∞V∞ c V∞
f2 ( , , )=0
0.5 ρ ∞V∞ S µ ∞ a∞
2

or
f 2 (C R , Re, M ∞ ) = 0
or
C R = f 6 (Re, M ∞ )
10. Important conclusion:
In the general function form, R is expressed
with five independent physical variables
After our dimensional analysis, R can be
expressed with only two independent
variables
• R can be expressed in terms of a
dimensionless
CR force coefficientM ∞
• is a function of only Re and
11. Important applications of Re andM∞ .
similarity parameters
12. As lift and drag are components of the
resultant force, then the lift and drag
coefficients are also functions
M∞ of only Re and
.
C L = f 7 (Re, M ∞ )
C D = f 8 (Re, M ∞ )
Moreover, a relation similar to aerodynamic
forces holds for aerodynamic moments, and
dimension analysis yields

CM = f 9 (Re, M ∞ )
13. If the angle of attack is allowed to vary,
then, the lift, drag and moment coefficients
will in general depend αon the value of .

C L = f10 (Re, M ∞ , α )
C D = f11 (Re, M ∞ , α )
CM = f12 (Re, M ∞ , α )
14. Other similarity parameters associated
with thermodynamics and heat transfer.
Physical variables should be added
temperature, specific heat , thermal
conductivity,
temperature of the body surface

Fundamental dimension should be added


unit of the temperature(K)

Similarity parameters created


c p cv Tw T∞ Pr = µ ∞ c p k∞
1.8 Flow similarity (流动相似)
※Definition of flow similarity
Different flows are dynamically similar if:
3. The streamline patterns are geometrically
similar V V∞ , p p∞ , T T∞ ,
2. The distributions of etc.,
throughout the flow field are the same
when plotted against common
nondimensional coordinates.
3. The force coefficients are the same
※Criteria to ensure flow similarity
2. The bodies and any other solid boundaries
are geometrically similar for both flows.
2. The similarity parameters are identical for
both flows.
3. Reynolds and Mach number are the most
dominant similarity parameters for many
aerodynamic problems.
※Examples 1.4 and 1.5
1.9 Fluid Statics : Buoyancy
Force
( 流体静力学:浮力)

Skipped over
1.10 Types of Flow (流动类型

1. The purpose for categorizing different
types of flow.
2. The strategy to simplify the flow problems.
3. Itemization and comparison of different
types of flow, and brief description of their
most important physical phenomena.
1.10.1 Continuum versus free
molecule flow
1. λ
Definition of mean-free path .
2. Continuum flow . λ << d
3. Free molecule flow λ ≈ d
4. In most aerodynamic problems, we will
always treat the fluid as continuum flow.
1.10.2 Inviscid versus viscous flow
1. The random motion of the molecule will
transport their mass, momentum, and
energy from one location to another in the
fluid. This transport on a molecule scale
gives rise to the phenomena of mass
diffusion, viscosity, and thermal
conduction. All real flows exhibit the effect
of these transport phenomena; such flows
are call viscous flows.
2. A flow that is assumed free with all these
phenomena above is called inviscid flow .
3. Inviscid flow is approached in the limit as
the Reynolds number goes to infinity.
friction, thermal conduction, and diffusion
is limited in the boundary layer.
5. The inviscid theory can be used to predicts
the pressure distribution and lift. However,
it cannot predicts total drag.
6. Flows dominated by viscous effects.
Flow around airfoil
at high angle of
attack

Flow around blunt


body
7. No inviscid theory can independently
predict the aerodynamics of such flows.

1.10.3 Incompressible versus


compressible Flows
ρ
• A flow in which the density is constant is
called incompressible. In contrast, a flow
where the density is variable is called
compressible.
2. All the flows are compressible, more or less
3. There are a number of aerodynamic
problems that can be modeled as being
incompressible without any detrimental
loss of accuracy.
the Mach number of the flow.

1.10.4 Mach number regimes


1. Local definition

Subsonic if M <1
Sonic if M =1
Supersonic if M > 1
Where M
is the local Mach number at an arbitrary point
in a flow field.
2. Definition for whole flow field
3. Block diagram categorizing the types of
aerodynamic flows
1.11 Applied aerodynamics: The
aerodynamic coefficients —
Their magnitude and variations
• Difference between the fundamentals and
applications of aerodynamics.
2. Aerodynamic coefficients, such as lift, drag,
and moment coefficients, are the primary
language of application external
aerodynamics.
3. Typical values for the aerodynamic
coefficients for some common aerodynamic
shapes and it’s variation with Mach number
and Reynolds number.
4. Some typical drag coefficients for various
aerodynamic configurations in low speed
flows.

C D = D q∞ S
'
S = d (1)
 Comparison through case a to c :
the Reynolds numbers for all these three
cases are the same based on d (diameter).
the wakes are getting smaller in size from a
to c
C D
also becomes smaller from case a to c
 Comparison between case b and d :
the Reynolds number in case10b5 :
the Reynolds number in case10d4 :
C D is the same for case b to d
C D for a circular cylinder is relatively
independent of Reynolds number 10 4 between
105
Re= and
 Comparison between case b to e :
the Reynolds number in case b10:5
the Reynolds number in case e10:7
C D in case e is 0.6
smaller wake behind the cylinder in case e
compared to that in case b .

Note: With based on the frontal projected


area (S=d(1) per unit span), the value of
range from a maximum 2 to numbers as low
as 0.12.
Magnitude of Reynolds number of a flow
around a circular cylinder at standard sea
1m, ρ ∞ where,
d =level, = 1.23kg / m , µ ∞ = 1.789 ×10 kg / m ⋅ s, V∞ = 45m / s
3 5
Then the Reynolds number is :
ρ ∞ V∞ d (1.23)(45)(1)
Re = = = 3 . 09 × 10 6

µ∞ 1.789 ×105

for practical applications in


aerodynamics, the values of Re are in
millions.
Pressure drag and skin friction drag:
The total drag exerted on the bodies are
combined with pressure drag and skin
friction drag.
the drag of the vertical flat plate and the
circular cylinder is dominated by pressure
drag, whereas, in contrast, most of the drag
of the streamlined body is due to skin
Drag on a flat plate at zero angle of attack.
Here, the drag is completely due to shear
stress, there is no pressure force in the drag
direction.
C f = D q∞ S = D' q∞ c(1)
'

The reference area is the planform area


From the above figure, we can conclude that
1. C D is a strong function of Re
2. The value ofC D depends on whether the
flow over the plate surface is laminar or
turbulent. CD
3. The magnitudes of range typically from
0.001 to 0.01 over a large range of Re.
Drag coefficient of a complete low-speed
aircraft.
Drag coefficient of a complete high-speed
aircraft.
Lift coefficient of an airfoil.
Lift coefficient increases linearly with angle
α
of attack until reaches near 14 degrees.
And beyond this angle of attack, lift
coefficient decreases precipitously.
The ratio of lift to drag is a very important
characteristic for flight performance.
The L/D ratio for NACA 63-210 α at= 20 is
130. This is much lager than that of a
complete aircraft.
Application of flap
Application of flap (High-lift device).
L = C L q∞ S
In the take-off and landing phases, the
flight speed is very slow compared with
cruise phases. And, as we know, the lift is
proportional to the square of the flight
speed. So, with the same shape and angle
of attack, the lift at take-off and landing
phases will be much smaller than that of
the cruise phase.
Flaps mounted at the trailing edge of the
wing are used to increase the lift or lift
coefficient during the take-off and landing
of an aircraft.
Moment coefficient.