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FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES

（基本原理）

apply to aerodynamics in general. These are the

pillars on which all of aerodynamics is based.

Chapter 1 LIFT AND DRAG

Section 1 Characteristics of

Airflow

1. Airflow and relative airflow

Airflow means moving stream of air.

relative airflow, which is equal to the object

movement in speed and opposite in direction.

caused by the relative motion is called

aerodynamic force

2. Streamline and streamline pattern

of the

particles of the airflow in a steady air stream.

e streamline pattern can be directly observed in the smoke

nd tunnel test.

The air particles between the two streamlines seem to

flow along the tube, usually the tube composed of

streamlines is known as stream tube.

Streamline pattern displays the flowing of the air stream. In the

low-speed airflow, the streamline pattern depends only on an

object’s shape and its relative position in the airflow.

pattern

The feature is that the stream tube is thicker at

the front of an object, thinner at the upper and

lower convex parts of the object and an eddy zone

is formed behind it.

(2) Effect of the relative position of an object in the

airflow on the streamline pattern

Wing chord: the joining line from

the leading edge to the trailing

edge of an aerofoil.

The angle between the wing

chord

and the direction of the relative

α

airflow (or the aircraft moving

direction) is called angle of

Through )test it can be seen that the streamline

attack,(

pattern varies with the relative position of an object

with the same shape in the airflow.

3. Principle of airflow continuity

When the air passes continuously and steadily

through a convergent-divergent pipe, because

the air in any part of the pipe can neither break

off nor squeeze there, the air mass flowing into

section 1 and that flowing out of section 2 at the

same unit time is equal, that is to say, the air

mass(i.e. the airflow)passing through each

section per second is equal. This is known as the

principle of the airflow continuity.

Where : ρ=Air density

V=Speed of air passing through the section

A=Sectional area

The above formula shows that the density of the air flowing

a low speed remains almost constant and the speed of the

airflow is in inverse proportion to the area of the section it ha

lown, i.e. the air flows faster at the convergent part than the

divergent part .

4. Bernoulli’s theorem

Bernoulli’s theorem,

defining the relationship

between the pressure and the

flowing speed of the fluid in

motion, is one of the basic

theorems for studying the

characteristics of the airflow.

The change of air

pressure with flowing speed

can also be explained by

the relations of the static

pressure, dynamic pressure

and pitot pressure.

tatic pressure(p): The static pressure means the pressure tha

the air acts on the objects surface.

For example, the atmospheric pressure is a

manifestation of static pressure.

Dynamic pressure(q): It exists in the flowing air, which

can be

turned into static pressure and applied

on

the surface of an object only when the

airflow is obstructed and its speed

reduced. ρ

The magnitude of dynamic pressure is

directly proportional to the air

tot pressure(p0): it is the sum of static pressure and dynamic

density( ) and to the square of

airflow pressure in the airflow.

velocity(V), and its value is .

In the steady airflow, the sum of static pressure

and dynamic pressure of air on every section of

the same stream tube maintains constant. This

constant value is just the pitot pressure of the

air. The above relations can be expressed by

the following formula:

place where the air flowing speed is fast, and

vice versa. This is the content of Bernoulli’s

theorem.

Section 2 Lift

Lift is a kind of aerodynamic forces, supporting the

aircraft in flight.

1. Generation of lift

From the streamline pattern of the air flowing over

the wing(Fig.1-7), it can be seen that the air is

divided into the upper and lower parts at the leading

edge of the wing, and flowing over the upper and

lower surfaces of the wing respectively and, joining

together again at the trailing edge of the wing and

flowing backward.

Because the upper surface of the wing is somewhat

convex, so the stream tube becomes thinner, the air

flowing speeds up and the pressure drops; the

stream tube on the lower surface of the wing

becomes thicker, the flowing speed decreases and

the pressure increases. A pressure differential

perpendicular to the moving direction is therefore

produced between the upper and lower wing surfaces

and forms the lift. Wing lift is thus the sum total

of the pressure differential between all the

upper and lower sections of the wing.

The intersection point

of the lift and wing

chord is called

----center of

pressure.

The direction of

lift is

perpendicular to

that of the

aircraft

movement. And

because the left

and right wings

are symmetric,

the

The wing lift lift

aircraft is is therefore within the aircraft symmetry

equal

plane in the divides the aircraft into two of the left and

(which

normal flight.

right symmetric sections)as shown in Fig.1-8.

To understand further the magnitude of force borne by

the each position of the wing, it is necessary to know the

pressure distribution on the wing surfaces. The

differences between on each point of the wing section

and atmospheric pressure can be measured by way of

test, which are drawn out along the vertical

direction of wing section by using

the line segments with arrows.

All the pressure being lower than

the atmospheric is called suction

or negative pressure, which is

indicated with the direction of

arrow facing outward. All the

pressure being higher than the

atmospheric pressure is called

positive pressure, which is

indicatedtowith

pointing thethe

wing

direction

surface.ofAnd then, link the end-

arrow of all arrows together by using a smooth curved

points

line and, a pressure distribution diagram is thus

constituted. The point at which the pressure is the

lowest(i.e. suction is maximum)on the diagram is called

minimum pressure point. At the leading edge the

flowing speed is zero, i.e. a point at which the pressure

From the pressure distribution diagram of the wing, it

can be seen that the aircraft lift is produced primarily by

depending on the effect of suction of the upper wing

surface but not mainly depending on the effect of the

positive pressure on the lower wing surface.

2. The factors affecting lift

(1) Effect of angle of attack on lift

Within the extent of the angle of attack, lift

increases with the increase in the angle of attack.

Because with the increase of the angle of attack, the

bending of the streamlines at the front of the upper

wing surface increases, causing the stream tube to

contract more, the flowing speed to increase and

the pressure to reduce further(the suction becomes

greater). At the same time, the stream tube under

the wing become thicker, the flowing speed

decreases and the pressure increases(Fig.1-11 A.B.).

The pressure differential between the upper and

lower wing surfaces increases, the lift is therefore

increased. When the angle of attack increases to a

fixed extent, the lift will increase to the

maximum(Fig.1-11 C). If the angle of attack is

increased beyond that angle, on the contrary, the lift

will decrease(the causes will be analysed in section

(2) Effect of flying speed on lift

The higher the flying speed, the greater the lift.

Experiment proves that if the speed is doubled, the lift

will be quadrupled; and the speed is tripled, the lift will

be increased to nine times, i.e. the lift is directly

proportional to the square of the flying speed.

Lift increases with the increase in air density.

Experiment proves that when the air density is

doubled, and so will be the lift, i.e. the lift is directly

proportional to the air density.

(4) Effect of the wing area on lift

The bigger the wing area is, the greater the area

for producing the suction on the upper wing surface

and the positive pressure on the lower wing surface

will be and so is the sum total of pressure differential

between the upper and lower wing surfaces, and the

lift is therefore great. The lift is directly proportional

to the wing area.

(5) Effect of the shape of airfoil on lift

short).

For example, comparing the flat-convex wing with

biconvex wing, of which their thickness and length

of wing chord are the same, under the condition of

the same angle of attack, because the bending of

upper surface of the flat-convex wing is great, the

stream tube on it is thus rather thin, flowing speed

is great and the pressure is comparatively low,

while the stream tube on the lower surface is rather

thick, so the flowing speed is low and the pressure

is comparatively high. Therefore, the lift of the flat-

convex wing is greater than that of the biconvex

wing.(Fig1-12)

3. The formula and coefficient curve of lift

In accordance with the above analysis, the lift (L)

α

depends on the angle ρ ), air

of attack( ), flight speed(V

density( ),wing area(S ) and airfoil. The summarization

of its changing law gives us the following lift formula:

represents comprehensively the effect of angle of

attack and airfoil on the lift.

Usually , an aircraft does not change its airfoil during

flight. At this time, the change of the lift coefficient is

determined by the magnitude of angle of attack. The

lift coefficients of different angles of attack can be

obtained through the wind tunnel test. The lift

coefficients of different angles of attack for Type-6

Primary Trainer are listed below:

α -1 0 2 6 8.9 10 14 16 18 19 20

o o o o o o o o o o o

0.07 0.22 0.52 0.73 0.82 1.12 1.27 1.36 1.37 1.35

0 3 2 8 2

given in the above table, a curve of the lift coefficient

for the aircraft can be drawn, as shown in Fig.1-13.

From the curve of lift

coefficient, we can see

that:

(1) Zero-lift angle of attack:

The angle of attack with

zero lift is called zero-lift

angle of attack, which is

equivalent to the angle of

attack corresponded by

the intersection point

between the curve and

axis of abscissa in the

(2) Critical angle of attack:

graph.

The angle of attack with

maximum lift coefficient

is called critical angle of

attack,

i.e. the angle of attack corresponded by the highest

point of the curve in the graph.(19o for Type-6 Primary

Trainer).

(3) The changing law of the lift coefficient with angle of

attack:

The lift coefficient increases with the increase of

angle of attack starting from zero-lift angle of

attack, and reaches its maximum value at the

critical angle of attack, and changes to rapid

decrease and the curve bends downward with the

increase of angle of attack exceeding the critical

angle of attack.

Section 3 Drag

Drag is an aerodynamic force too, which resists the

aircraft from moving forward and its direction is

opposite to that of the aircraft motion.

1. Generation of drag

There are mainly three kinds of drags produced by

the aircraft during flight.

(1) Friction drag

Viscosity is the tendency of air. During flight, the air

adhering to the aircraft surfaces over which it is

flowing will rub against the aircraft surfaces, resulting

in a drag which is called friction drag.

(2) Pressure drag

The air must meet obstruction at the leading edge of

the wing of an aircraft during flight, its speed is

reduced and pressure increased; and at the trailing

edge, there is a generation of eddy zone where the air

pressure is reduced, therefore a pressure differential is

created between the leading and trailing edges,

forming a drag which is called pressure drag(Fig.1-14).

By analogy, the pressure drag can also be produced on

the fuselage and tail, etc.

(2) Lift dependent drag

The lift dependent drag is caused by lift, or in another

word, it is “induced” by the generation of lift on the

wing, which is therefore called lift dependent drag.

When the wing is producing lift, the pressure on the

lower surface is higher than on the upper surface, so

the air caused to spill around the wing tips from the

lower surface to the upper surface, the air on the wing

tip is thus made to twist, as a result, the tip eddy is

formed(Fig.1-15).

The tip eddy makes the air flowing over the wing

produce a downward speed which is called downwash

speed. The resultant speed of the downwash speed and

head-on airflow speed inclines downward. This airflow

with the speed direction inclined downward is called

downwash flow. Affected by the downwash speed, the

head-on airflow will incline downward and the lift

produced will slant rearwards accordingly, as L’ shown in

Fig.1-16. With regard to the head-on airflow(moving

direction), the parallel component force of L’ will also

play a role of drag(Dinduced in the figure) with exception of

its vertical component L which acts as lift, and this drag

is called lift dependent drag.

2. The factors affecting the drag and drag

formula

Because both lift and drag are the aerodynamic forces,

the factors affecting the drag are basically the same as

those affecting the lift, that is to say, the drag is

directly proportional to the square of the speed, air

density and wing area; it is also related to the angle of

attack, wing shape, etc. The drag can be expressed by

the following formula:

3. The drag coefficient and its curve

The meaning of the drag coefficient is basically the

same as that of the lift coefficient. It expresses

comprehensively the effect of factors of the angle of

attack and aircraft shape on the drag. To an aircraft,

usually its configuration is constant, so the drag

coefficient depends on the magnitude of the angle of

attack.

The changing law of the drag

coefficient with the angle of

attack can be expressed by the

curve of the drag coefficient as

shown in Fig.1-17. From the

curve of the drag coefficient,

we can see that the same

amount of increase in the

angle of attack, the drag

coefficient increases less in the

range of low angle of attack,

but in the range of high angle

of attack, the drag coefficient

increases more. because both

After exceeding

lift dependent the and

drag critical angle of attack, the drag

coefficient will would

pressure drag increase

alsomuch more and, this is because

the eddy zone expands rapidly and the pressure drag

increase;

increases with the increase of angle of attack.

Section 4 Variation of Aerodynamic

Force of the Aircraft After

Exceeding the Critical Angle of

Attack

1. Boundary

layer

When the air is flowing over the wing, there will be an

air flowing layer with the gradual reduction of airflow

speed because of the viscous friction between the air

and object surface. This flowing layer is known as the

boundary layer.

2. Phenomenon of airflow separation

The air flows from

over the minimum

pressure point on the

upper wing surface to

the wing trailing

speed goes

edge, the down progressively, the travelling pressure

airflow

will become greater and greater accordingly and so

does the pressure in the boundary layer. Hence, under

the action of reverse pressure differential, the flowing of

air in the boundary layer will be retarded so the speed

is caused to reduce gradually, and even the air in the

boundary layer at the rear of the wing might be forced

to flow back. As a result, the adverse flowing air and

rearward flowing air in the boundary layer will collide

themselves, causing the airflow in the boundary layer to

separate from the wing surface ,an airflow separation

phenomenon is formed and many eddies produced.

At the low angle of attack, the effect of reverse

pressure differential in the boundary layer is less,

the adverse flow is weak and the separation point

is therefore close to the trailing edge; but with the

increase in the angle of attack, the reverse

pressure differential in the boundary layer will also

increase and the adverse flow becomes stronger,

the separation point is thus made to move forward

and the eddy zone to expand forward; after

exceeding the critical angle of attack, the reverse

pressure differential will become even greater and

the separation point will move forward suddenly

and greatly and, the eddy zone will expand

forward rapidly as well.

1. Reasons for the reduction of the lift

coefficient and sudden increase of the

drag coefficient after exceeding the

critical angle of attack

After exceeding the critical angle of attack, the

airflow separation point suddenly moves forward to

the place near the wing leading edge and the eddy

zone becomes greater. At this moment, the stream

tubes at the front of the upper surface become thicker,

the flowing speed decreases and the suction force

reduces (comparing C with D in Fig. 1-11) and this is of

a help to reducing the lift coefficient, but in the eddy

zone at the rear of the wing, the suction force

increases slightly and it is of a help to increasing the

lift coefficient. It is obvious that the effects of the

above two factors on the lift coefficient are

contradictory to each other.

But after exceeding the critical angle of attack, the

suction force at the front of the upper wing surface

drops rather more, thus its effect on the lift coefficient

is principal, the lift coefficient is therefore made to

reduce.

After exceeding the critical angle of attack, the

pressure is reduced slightly within a certain range of

the wing trailing edge; but the flowing speed at the

front of the lower wing surface is very low and the

pressure is increased because of the increase in the

angle of attack. Therefore, the pressure differential

between the leading and trailing edges of the wing is

increased and the drag coefficient will gain a sudden

increase.

Section 5 Lift-drag Ratio

Lift-drag ratio (K) is the ratio between lift and drag

at the same angle of attack. The higher the ratio

is, the less the drag will be in a condition to obtain

the same lift. The formula of the lift-drag ratio is:

ratio is the ratio between the coefficients of lift and

drag at the same angle of attack.

Because the coefficients of lift and drag vary mainly

with the angle of attack, so does the lift-drag ratio.

The proved lift-drag ratio for Type-6 Primary Trainer

at different angles of attack is as follows:

α -1o 0o 2o 6o 8 10 14 16 18 19 20

o

.9 o o o o o o

0 0.07

3

0.22

2

0.52 0.73 0.82

8 2

1.12 1.27 1.36 1.37 1.35

0.03 0.07 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.14 0.17 0.21 0.23 0.26

6 3 1 4 6 7 4 8 6 7 1

5.43 8.08 8.56 8.51 7.78 7.15 6.30 5.78 5.17

0 2

From the above table it can be seen that:

When the angle of attack increases progressively

from low to high, the increased multiples of the lift

coefficient are more than that of the drag coefficient, so

the lift-drag ratio increases gradually and to the

maximum when the angle of attack increases to 8.9o,

and any further increase in the angle of attack would

First flight of Wright brothers

Dec. 17, 1903

Wilbur and Orville Wright's Wright Flyer

was the first successful airplane. On

December 17, 1903, at Kitty Hawk, North

Carolina, Orville Wright flew the first

heavier-than-air machine in a powered,

controlled, and sustained flight. The Flyer,

constructed of wood, wire, and muslin, went

a distance of 120 feet in 12 seconds. It was a

tremendous success, coming from a long

series of aeronautics experiments that the

Wright Brothers started in 1899 with a kite.

At the rear of the 1903 Wright Flyer one finds a pair

of pusher propellers. The propellers are long, thin,

twisted pieces of wood which are spun at high speed.

Control of roll: WING WARP

Overview of Wright Brothers Discoveries

Aerodynamic heating of the reentry

vehicle

speeds of from 6 to 6.7km/s.

The aerodynamic heating of the reentry

vehicles becomes severe, the cover of the

war head will be heated up to 10,000K.

Blunt reentry body design can minimize the

aerodynamic heating problem.

1.2 Aerodynamics:Classification

and Practical Objectives

( 空气动力学：分类和应用目标）

Distinction of solids, liquids, and

gases

Practical applications in

engineering

Solids, liquids, and gases in a container

boundaries will remind the same.

The liquid will change its shape to conform to that of

the container and will take on the same boundaries

as the container up to the maximum depth of the

liquid.

The gas will completely fill the container, taking on

the same boundaries as the container.

Solid and “fluid”(a liquid or a gas) under

a tangential force == deformation

固体和 流体在 受到 剪应力 时， 各自形 状所 发生的 变

化方式 截然不 同。

Under a force applied tangentially to the surface of a

solid body, the solid body will undergo a finite

deformation, and the tangential force per unit area—

the shear stress—will usually be proportional to the

amount of deformation.

If the case happens for a fluid, then, the fluid will

experience a continuously increasing deformation and

the shear stress will usually be proportional to the rate

of the deformation.

τ: Shear stress 剪应力

Solid τ ∝θ

: θ: Deformation 变形

fluid: τ ∝ θ θ : Rate of deformation 变

Mechanics distinction of solids, liquids, and

gases

Distinction of solids, liquids, and gases

respects to the intermolecular forces

Fluid dynamics is subdivided into three

areas:

Hydrodynamics --- flow of liquids

Gas dynamics --- flow of gases

Aerodynamics --- flow of air

Practical objectives of

Aerodynamics

1. The prediction of forces and moments on

and heat transfer to, bodies moving

through a fluid.

2. Determination of flows moving internally

through ducts

3. External aerodynamics

4. Internal aerodynamics

1.3 Road Map of this chapter

What’s the usage of the road

map

At the beginning of each chapter,

road map give you the sense for you

get to know where you are, where

you are going, and how can you get

there

Show the interrelationship of the

materials in the chapter

At the end of the chapter, after you

look back over the road map, you

1.4 Some fundamental

Aerodynamic Variables

1. Aerodynamic variables are something like

technical vocabulary for the physical

science and engineering understanding

2. First introduced aerodynamic variables:

pressure,density,temperature, and flow

velocity

The velocity description of a fluid is quite

different to that of a solid body.

Velocity of a flowing gas at any fixed point B in space

is the velocity of a small fluid element as it sweeps

through B.

1.5 Aerodynamic forces and

moments

Aerodynamic forces and moments on a

moving body are due to only two basic

sources:

1. Pressure distribution over the body

surface

2. Shear stress distribution over the body

surface

Both pressure and shear stress have

dimensions of force per unit area.

pressure acts normal to the body surface.

shear stress acts tangential to the

surface.

The net effect of the pressure and shear

stress distribution results in a

aerodynamic force R and moment M on

the body.

The resultant force R can be split into

components

L = lift : component of R perpendicularV∞to

D = drag : components of R parallel V

to

∞

(wind system)

N = normal force :

component of R perpendicular to c

A = axial force :

components of R parallel to c

(body system)

After the pressure and shear stress

distributions being defined, and the geometry

shape of the body being known, the resultant

aerodynamic force can be obtained by the

integration of the pressure and shear stress

distributions along the surface of the body.

From Eqs. (1.7),(1.8) and (1.11), we can see

clearly, that the sources of the aerodynamic

lift, drag, and moments on a body are the

pressure and shear stress distribution

integrated over the body.

to calculate p(s) and τ(s) for a given body

shape and freestream conditions, and then

obtain the aerodynamic forces and moments

with the use of Eqs. (1.7),(1.8) and (1.11)

Dimensionless aerodynamic force and

moment coefficients are even more

important than the aerodynamic forces

and moments.

Definition ofρ ∞ and

V∞

density and velocity in the freestream,

which is far ahead of the body.

1

q∞ = ρ ∞V∞2

2

The dynamic pressure has the unit of

pressure

Definition of dimensionless force and

moment coefficients

L

Lift coefficient: CL =

q∞ S

D

Drag coefficient: C D =

q∞ S

N

Normal force coefficient: C N =

q∞ S

N

Axial force coefficient: C N =

q∞ S

M

Moment coefficient: CM =

q∞ Sl

S : reference area

l : reference length

Definition ofS andl may be different for

different shapes of the body being

concerned.

The symbols in capital letters, such as

C L , C D , C M , C N and C A

represents the force and moment coefficients

for a three-dimensional body.

cl , cd and cm

denote the force and moment coefficients for

a two-dimensional body

' ' '

L D M

cl = , cd = , cm = 2

S = c(1)

q∞ c q∞ c q∞ c

' ' '

L , D , M are force and moments per unit span

Two additional dimensionless quantities of

immediate use are

p − p∞

Pressure coefficient Cp =

q∞

τ

Skin friction cf =

coefficient q∞

pressure

1.6 Center of pressure （压力

中心）

The center of the pressure is a point on the

body about which the aerodynamic moment

contributed by the pressure and shear stress

distributions is equal to zero.

'

M

If LE is defined as the moment generated by

the distributed loads,Nand

'

is the

component of the resultant force, then the

xcpcenter must be located

pressure

downstream of the leading ' edge

M

xcp = − LE

'

N

L' ≈ N '

If the angle of attack is small, ,thus

'

M

xcp = − LE

'

L

It is clear to see that as lift approaches to

zero, the center of pressure moves to infinity.

So, the center of pressure is not always a

convenient concept in aerodynamics. There

are other ways to define the force-and-

moment system on an airfoil

M '

LE = −L c 4 + M

' '

c4 = − xcp L

'

1.7 Dimensional analysis:

The Buchingham PI

theorem （量纲分析： PI 定理）

※What physical quantities determine the

variation of the aerodynamic forces and

moments? On a physical, intuitive basis, we

expect R is depend on:

1. Freestream velocity

2. Freestream density

3. Viscosity of the fluid

4. The size of the body

5. The compressibility of the fluid

R = f ( ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, µ ∞ , a∞ ) (1.23)

※ How to find a precise functional relation for

the equation above? Execute huge amount of

wind tunnel experiment might be one way.

effectively?

※An obvious fact for the dimensional analysis

ψ +η + ζ = φ

All the terms in this physical relation must

have the same dimensions

※Buckingham PI theorem

1. Let K to be the number of fundamental

dimensions required to describe the physical

variables

P1 , P2 , , PN

2. Let represent N physical variables

in the physical relation

f1 ( P1 , P2 , PN ) = 0

3. Then the physical relation can be

reexpressed as a relation of (N-K)

dimensionless products.

f 2 (Π1 , Π 2 , Π N −K ) = 0

4. Every product is a dimensionless product of

a set of K physical variables plus one other

physical variable.

Π1 = f 3 ( P1 , P2 , PK , PK +1 )

Π 2 = f 4 ( P1 , P2 , PK , PK + 2 )

Π N − K = f 5 ( P1 , P2 , PK , PN )

5. P1 , P2 , PK is called repeating variables. These

variables should include all the K dimensions

used in the problem.

※Aerodynamic force on a given body at a given

angle of attack.

1. Eq. (1.23)

R = f ( ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, µ ∞ , a∞ ) (1.23)

can be expressed as

g ( R, ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, µ ∞ , a∞ ) = 0 (1.27)

physical intuition, the fundamental dimensions

are m,l and t .

Hence, K=3

3. The physical variables and their

dimensions are

[ R ] = mlt , [ ρ ∞ ] = ml , [V∞ ] = lt ,

−2 −3 −1

[c] = l , [ µ ∞ ] = ml t , [a∞ ] = lt

−1 −1 −1

and N=6

Eq.(1.27) can be reexpressed in terms of N-

Π

K=3 dimensionless

products, that is

f 2 (Π 1 , Π 2 , Π 3 ) = 0 (1.28)

5. Now, we choseρ ∞ ,V∞ , c as repeating

Π

variables, from Eq.(1.26), these products

are

Π1 = f 3 ( ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, R )

Π 2 = f 4 ( ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, µ ∞ )

Π 3 = f 5 ( ρ ∞ , V∞ , c, a∞ )

5. Assume

Π1 = ρ V c R

d b e

∞ ∞

in dimensional form

[ Π1 ] = (ml −3 d −1 b e

) (lt ) (l ) (mlt ) −2

6. As Π1 is dimensionless, then

for m : d +1 = 0

for l : − 3d + b + e + 1 = 0

for t : −b−2 = 0

7. The above Equations give d=-1,b=-2,and e=-

2 , then we have

R

Π 1 = Rρ V c −1 − 2 − 2

∞ ∞ =

ρ ∞V∞ c

2 2

or R R

Π1 = =

1 q S

ρ ∞V∞ S

2 ∞

2

where S is defined as reference area

Π1 is a force coefficient, definedCas

R

remaining products as follows

ρ ∞V∞ c

Π2 = Reynolds Number 雷

µ∞ 诺数

V∞

Π3 = Mach Number 马赫数

a∞

9. Inserting all theΠ products into Eq.

(1.28) R ρ ∞V∞ c V∞

f2 ( , , )=0

0.5 ρ ∞V∞ S µ ∞ a∞

2

or

f 2 (C R , Re, M ∞ ) = 0

or

C R = f 6 (Re, M ∞ )

10. Important conclusion:

In the general function form, R is expressed

with five independent physical variables

After our dimensional analysis, R can be

expressed with only two independent

variables

• R can be expressed in terms of a

dimensionless

CR force coefficientM ∞

• is a function of only Re and

11. Important applications of Re andM∞ .

similarity parameters

12. As lift and drag are components of the

resultant force, then the lift and drag

coefficients are also functions

M∞ of only Re and

.

C L = f 7 (Re, M ∞ )

C D = f 8 (Re, M ∞ )

Moreover, a relation similar to aerodynamic

forces holds for aerodynamic moments, and

dimension analysis yields

CM = f 9 (Re, M ∞ )

13. If the angle of attack is allowed to vary,

then, the lift, drag and moment coefficients

will in general depend αon the value of .

C L = f10 (Re, M ∞ , α )

C D = f11 (Re, M ∞ , α )

CM = f12 (Re, M ∞ , α )

14. Other similarity parameters associated

with thermodynamics and heat transfer.

Physical variables should be added

temperature, specific heat , thermal

conductivity,

temperature of the body surface

unit of the temperature(K)

c p cv Tw T∞ Pr = µ ∞ c p k∞

1.8 Flow similarity （流动相似）

※Definition of flow similarity

Different flows are dynamically similar if:

3. The streamline patterns are geometrically

similar V V∞ , p p∞ , T T∞ ,

2. The distributions of etc.,

throughout the flow field are the same

when plotted against common

nondimensional coordinates.

3. The force coefficients are the same

※Criteria to ensure flow similarity

2. The bodies and any other solid boundaries

are geometrically similar for both flows.

2. The similarity parameters are identical for

both flows.

3. Reynolds and Mach number are the most

dominant similarity parameters for many

aerodynamic problems.

※Examples 1.4 and 1.5

1.9 Fluid Statics ： Buoyancy

Force

( 流体静力学：浮力）

Skipped over

1.10 Types of Flow （流动类型

）

1. The purpose for categorizing different

types of flow.

2. The strategy to simplify the flow problems.

3. Itemization and comparison of different

types of flow, and brief description of their

most important physical phenomena.

1.10.1 Continuum versus free

molecule flow

1. λ

Definition of mean-free path .

2. Continuum flow . λ << d

3. Free molecule flow λ ≈ d

4. In most aerodynamic problems, we will

always treat the fluid as continuum flow.

1.10.2 Inviscid versus viscous flow

1. The random motion of the molecule will

transport their mass, momentum, and

energy from one location to another in the

fluid. This transport on a molecule scale

gives rise to the phenomena of mass

diffusion, viscosity, and thermal

conduction. All real flows exhibit the effect

of these transport phenomena; such flows

are call viscous flows.

2. A flow that is assumed free with all these

phenomena above is called inviscid flow .

3. Inviscid flow is approached in the limit as

the Reynolds number goes to infinity.

friction, thermal conduction, and diffusion

is limited in the boundary layer.

5. The inviscid theory can be used to predicts

the pressure distribution and lift. However,

it cannot predicts total drag.

6. Flows dominated by viscous effects.

Flow around airfoil

at high angle of

attack

body

7. No inviscid theory can independently

predict the aerodynamics of such flows.

compressible Flows

ρ

• A flow in which the density is constant is

called incompressible. In contrast, a flow

where the density is variable is called

compressible.

2. All the flows are compressible, more or less

3. There are a number of aerodynamic

problems that can be modeled as being

incompressible without any detrimental

loss of accuracy.

the Mach number of the flow.

1. Local definition

Subsonic if M <1

Sonic if M =1

Supersonic if M > 1

Where M

is the local Mach number at an arbitrary point

in a flow field.

2. Definition for whole flow field

3. Block diagram categorizing the types of

aerodynamic flows

1.11 Applied aerodynamics: The

aerodynamic coefficients —

Their magnitude and variations

• Difference between the fundamentals and

applications of aerodynamics.

2. Aerodynamic coefficients, such as lift, drag,

and moment coefficients, are the primary

language of application external

aerodynamics.

3. Typical values for the aerodynamic

coefficients for some common aerodynamic

shapes and it’s variation with Mach number

and Reynolds number.

4. Some typical drag coefficients for various

aerodynamic configurations in low speed

flows.

C D = D q∞ S

'

S = d (1)

Comparison through case a to c :

the Reynolds numbers for all these three

cases are the same based on d (diameter).

the wakes are getting smaller in size from a

to c

C D

also becomes smaller from case a to c

Comparison between case b and d :

the Reynolds number in case10b5 :

the Reynolds number in case10d4 :

C D is the same for case b to d

C D for a circular cylinder is relatively

independent of Reynolds number 10 4 between

105

Re= and

Comparison between case b to e :

the Reynolds number in case b10:5

the Reynolds number in case e10:7

C D in case e is 0.6

smaller wake behind the cylinder in case e

compared to that in case b .

area (S=d(1) per unit span), the value of

range from a maximum 2 to numbers as low

as 0.12.

Magnitude of Reynolds number of a flow

around a circular cylinder at standard sea

1m, ρ ∞ where,

d =level, = 1.23kg / m , µ ∞ = 1.789 ×10 kg / m ⋅ s, V∞ = 45m / s

3 5

Then the Reynolds number is :

ρ ∞ V∞ d (1.23)(45)(1)

Re = = = 3 . 09 × 10 6

µ∞ 1.789 ×105

aerodynamics, the values of Re are in

millions.

Pressure drag and skin friction drag:

The total drag exerted on the bodies are

combined with pressure drag and skin

friction drag.

the drag of the vertical flat plate and the

circular cylinder is dominated by pressure

drag, whereas, in contrast, most of the drag

of the streamlined body is due to skin

Drag on a flat plate at zero angle of attack.

Here, the drag is completely due to shear

stress, there is no pressure force in the drag

direction.

C f = D q∞ S = D' q∞ c(1)

'

From the above figure, we can conclude that

1. C D is a strong function of Re

2. The value ofC D depends on whether the

flow over the plate surface is laminar or

turbulent. CD

3. The magnitudes of range typically from

0.001 to 0.01 over a large range of Re.

Drag coefficient of a complete low-speed

aircraft.

Drag coefficient of a complete high-speed

aircraft.

Lift coefficient of an airfoil.

Lift coefficient increases linearly with angle

α

of attack until reaches near 14 degrees.

And beyond this angle of attack, lift

coefficient decreases precipitously.

The ratio of lift to drag is a very important

characteristic for flight performance.

The L/D ratio for NACA 63-210 α at= 20 is

130. This is much lager than that of a

complete aircraft.

Application of flap

Application of flap (High-lift device).

L = C L q∞ S

In the take-off and landing phases, the

flight speed is very slow compared with

cruise phases. And, as we know, the lift is

proportional to the square of the flight

speed. So, with the same shape and angle

of attack, the lift at take-off and landing

phases will be much smaller than that of

the cruise phase.

Flaps mounted at the trailing edge of the

wing are used to increase the lift or lift

coefficient during the take-off and landing

of an aircraft.

Moment coefficient.