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PHYSICS 3

Friday, 01 March 2013

Convex Lenses
Lesson objectives

Understand

what effect convex lenses have on light rays. Be able to draw ray diagrams for convex lenses.

Using Refraction : lenses

The distance Imagine The lens parallelnormal Work the Draw outall Userays the betweenthe first refracts the Draw normal A of can directionlenspoint lines wherethe refraction rule ofrays to athe centre 90 to light of lines enter the of [at from be thought refracted theis rays workrays the ato andout lens distant F for called the[at the second surface] the as a series of using 90 to focal airray direction. object hitting called principal each ray.the focus prisms. refraction ]. surface]. [rule. the lens. length [F].

When light enters aamore When light enters dense medium [e.g. less dense medium glass], it bends towards [e.g. air], it bends away the normal. from the normal.

Biconvex Lenses
Biconvex lenses are converging lenses. When incoming parallel light rays are incident upon a biconvex lens... The rays are focussed to the F principle focus

F principle focus

f focal length, distance from F to lens

Drawing Ray Diagrams (1)


Draw

one ray from the top of the object parallel to the centre axis. This is refracted through the principal focus. Draw a second ray through the centre of the lens. This passes straight on it is not refracted at all! Where the rays meet the image is formed.

Drawing Ray Diagrams (2)

Lens Two light rays leave the object O and pass through the lens. Where they meet an image I is produced. This is a REAL, DIMINISHED and INVERTED image.

Your Ray Diagram 1


A convex lens has a focal length of 4 cm and an object 3 cm high is placed 8 cm in front of the lens (i.e. at 2F). Find the position, size and nature of the image formed.

Convex Lens Ray Diagrams Object at 2F

Image is real, inverted and the same size as the object. So its 8 cm from the lens and 3 cm high.

Your Ray Diagram 2


A convex lens has a focal length of 4 cm and an object 2 cm high is placed 6 cm in front of it. Find the position, size and nature of the image formed.

Convex Lens Ray Diagrams Object Between 2F and F

The image is 12 cm from the lens, 4 cm high and is real, inverted and magnified.

Your Ray Diagram 3


A convex lens has a focal length of 6 cm and an object 1 cm high is placed 4 cm in front of it. Find the position, size and nature of the image.

Convex Lens Ray Diagrams Object Between F and C

The image is 12 cm in front of the lens, 3 cm high and is virtual, upright and magnified.

Optics Test
1.
Which statement is true?

A. B.

Virtual images can be projected onto screens Erect images are upside-down

C.
D.

Concave mirrors are diverging


Biconcave lenses are diverging

Optics Test
2.
Which statement is true?

A. B.

Diminished images are smaller than the object Convex mirrors are converging

C.
D.

Biconvex lenses are diverging


Real images can not be projected onto

screens

Optics Test
3.
What optical device is shown?

A.
B. C. D.

Biconvex lens
Biconcave lens Convex mirror

Concave mirror

4. What do you think happens when


Parallel light rays strike a convex lens?
They pass through the focal point of the lens.

Diverging light rays?

Emerge as a parallel beam if they pass though the focal point (F).

Summary
Object position Image Position Real or virtual Magnified or diminished Inverted or erect

>2F
at 2F between 2F and F at F between F and lens

between F and 2F at 2F
> 2F at infinity same side as object

real real
real

diminished same size


magnified

inverted inverted
inverted

virtual

magnified

upright

Using Refraction : lenses - finding


Hold the lens in the other hand and move it closer to the screen until a clear image appears.

Hold a plain white screen in one hand.

Choseruler to Use a a distant objectdistance measure the [to get parallel between the lens and rays of light].this is the screen the focal length [].

Refraction : lenses
1. Find the focal length [] of your lens.

2F

2F

2. Fix the lens to the centre of a metre rule and mark the distances
F and 2F either side of the lens.

3. Place the candle >2F away from the lens and move the screen
until an image appears and record observations.

4. Repeat for the candle at 2F, between 2F and F, at F and between


F and the lens.

Results
Object position >2F at 2F Image Position Real or virtual Magnified or diminished Inverted or erect

between 2F and F
at F

between F and lens

Refraction : lenses
Object >2F away

2F

2F

I
The image [ l ] is formed between F and 2F away from the lens, is inverted and diminished.

Refraction : lenses
Object at 2F

2F

2F

I
The image [ l ] is formed at 2F away from the lens, is inverted and the same size.

Refraction : lenses
Object between 2Fand F away

2F

2F

The image [ l ] is formed further than 2F away from the lens, is inverted and magnified.

Refraction : lenses
Object at F away

2F

2F

The image [ l ] is formed at infinity - the rays never meet [we use this set-up for searchlights].

Refraction : lenses

Object between F and lens

2F

2F

The VIRTUAL image [ l ] is formed on the same side of the lens as the object, is the right way up and magnified.

Refraction : lenses

2F

2F

Magnification

Distance from lens to image Distance from object to lens

Using refraction : lenses summary


There are two main types of lens: Convex Concave

Convex lenses work by bending [refracting] rays of light to a principal focus.

The distance from the centre of the lens to the principal focus [F] is called the focal length [].
The image formed by a convex lens is inverted [back-to-front and upside-down]. The thicker the lens, the shorter the focal length[].

Convex Lens Ray Diagrams Object Beyond 2F

Image is real, inverted and diminished

Your Ray Diagrams


Draw ray diagrams with your object positioned: a) At 2F describe the image, b) Between F and 2F describe the image, c) Between the lens and F describe the image.

Optics Test
3.
What optical device is shown?

A.
B. C. D.

Biconvex lens
Biconcave lens Plane mirror Concave mirror