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UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health

Fundamentals

SAFETY AND HEALTH IN THE OFFICE

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

OUTLINE
STATUTORY PROVISIONS HAZARDS IN THE OFFICE OFFICE ENVIRONMENT AND ILLNESSES/HEALTH OFFICE ENVIRONMENT AND ACCIDENTS OFFICE SAFETY AND HEALTH MEASURES

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

INTRODUCTION
Office usually assumed as a safe workplace Important to create a comfortable working environment less exhausted and stressed in places where they have to spend long hours However, similar to other workplace, the office is not exempted from physical, biological, chemical, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards which can cause accidents and illnesses: Falling, crushing, collision, musculoskeletal diseases, eye fatigue etc.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

STATUTORY PROVISIONS
1) OSHA 1994
Section 15, duty of employers to ensure safety and health system or work

2) Guideline on Office Safety


Published by DOSH

3) Electricity Supply Act 1990


Provision related to safe use of electricity

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

4) Emergency Services Act 1988


Provision related to safety in fire prevention

5) Uniform Building By-laws 1984


Provision related to building safety in terms of design and construction

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (OSHA 1994) - section 15


Provide or maintain equipment and system of work that are safe and without risk to health Ensure that equipment and substances are used, stored and transported safely and without risks to health Provide information, instruction, training and supervision that ensures the safety and health of employees Maintain their workplace in a safe condition, including entrances and exits Provide adequate information about any research and tests of substances used at work Ensure health and safety of visitors to the workplace

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Objectives
To control office hazards in order to prevent accidents and work related disease. To create a comfortable working environment so that workers feel less exhausted and stressed in places where they have to spend long hours.

To have a comfortable working environment so that will enable


workers to put their abilities to use more effectively and revitalize workplace.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

HAZARDS IN THE OFFICE


Physical
Electrical, tools/machinery, ventilation, lighting, radiation, temperature, fire
Dust from new furniture, carpets Gas and vapors ozone by photocopier machines and laser printer, new furniture (formaldehyde), cigarette smoke (solvent)

Chemical
Biological Ergonomic

Air conditioning system Bacteria/virus waste food, domestic pests (mice)


Physical strain, mental stress, use of tools e.g. computer, table, chair Lifting of loads (carrying files, boxes), washing and cleaning floor

Psychosocial

Mental stress Interpersonal relationship

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

ACCIDENTS
Those hazards can cause accidents :
1) Falling from height while arranging or removing a file from a high rack 2) Falling from same level slipping or tripping over obstructions e.g. electrical wires or damaged carpets on the floor 3) Fire short circuits, cigarette butts 4) Kicking objects in working pathways open cabinet drawer, box on the floor

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

ILLNESSES
1) Contact with hot surface or electric current exposed wire 1) Exposure to chemical substances glue, solvent from ink 2) Exposure to radiation ultra violet, excessive sunlight and video display unit 3) Repetitive strain injuries using computers 4) Biological problems sick building syndrome, virus, bacteria, animal or insect pests (cockroach, rats), plant, live decorations 5) Problems with senses smell, hearing (deafness), vibration

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

OFFICE ENVIRONMENT AND ILLNESSES/HEALTH


Office environment combination of lighting, temperature, humidity, air quality and decoration.

A comfortable temperature must be maintained 20 to 26C Use air conditioning system to maintain the temperature Office temperature can be localised Desk situated in direct sunlight much warmer, if directly under air-conditioning vent can be cooler
Additional windows, skylights or glass partitions in offices should not allow excessive temperatures during hot weather

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Ill health effect which may be due to the office environment:


Headaches Lethargy (fatigue) Eye Sore throat problems Stress Etc

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Preventive Measures
Maintaining the correct combination of following elements: Lighting Temperature Humidity

Air quality
decoration.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Recommended Temperature:
Most people work comfortably : between 20 26 degree
Celsius. Use air-conditioning system to maintain the comfortable temperature. Additional windows, skylight or glass partitions in offices should not allow excessive temperatures during hot weather.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Recommended Humidity
Humidity : Refer to the amount of water vapor in the air.
The optimum comfort range for relative humidity is 40-60 percent.

Low humidity : can cause dryness of the eyes, nose and throat and
may also increase the frequency of static electricity shocks. High humidity : above 80% can be associated with fatigue and

report of stuffiness (too warm and having no fresh air)

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Ventilation
Ventilation : Refer to the movement of the air and rate of fresh air input.
Air movement < 0.1 meter per second can lead to stuffy rooms. Air movement > 0.2 meter per second , draught can be felt.

Recommendation:
For each person a minimum rate for 10 liters fresh air per second per person for general office space or 10 liters fresh air per second for every 10 square meters of floor space is recommended. Office should be ventilated either naturally or artificially. For most office opening windows or doors will provide adequate ventilation. Where mechanical ventilation or air conditioning is provided make sure the system is regularly checked, kept clean and well maintained to prevent a growth of legionella bacteria of other organisms.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Contaminated Air
Contaminants in the office can include bacteria, viruses, mould spores and dust, solvent vapors or chemical generated or used in the building.

Air-conditioning unit that do not provide adequate amounts of


fresh air can cause high levels of carbon dioxide. Stale (old and not fresh) air due to poor ventilation and excessive heat build-up or humidity can also contribute to air contamination.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Appropriate control measures for the reduction of air contamination include:


Effective air filtration Ensuring that adequate amounts of fresh air enter the building Maintenance of air-conditioning units including regular screening Preventing the obstruction of vent Locating equipment using solvents in non-airconditioned area with

substantial air movement and / or installing local exhaust ventilation

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Smoking
Environmental tobacco smoke is an indoor contaminant and there is
growing recognition that non-smokers may suffer adverse health effects through inhaling tobacco smoke.

A number of employers have fulfilled their legal obligations nosmoking policies in their workplace. Procedure such as consultation, education programs and the

allocation of designated smoking areas are recommended for the


development of an effective no-smoking policy.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Ozone and Photocopiers


Ozone does not build up in the air.
It breaks down into oxygen quickly after it is released into the air. Photocopiers and laser printers produce ozone gas during operation. 0.1 ppm ozone can cause eye and upper respiratory tract irritation, headache and temporary loss the ability to smell.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Ozone and Photocopiers (cont.)


Modern photocopier and laser printers are fitted with an ozone filter
and do not present any hazard to health if they are properly maintained. The fluorescent, metal halide, or quartz exposure lamps used in photocopiers can irritate the eye if viewed directly.

Dust from the toners (containing carbon black) should be less than
3.5 mg per cubic meter of air. If toner dust is breathed in directly, that it could irritate the respiratory tract.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Ozone and Photocopiers (cont.)


To keep ozone and duct containing carbon black levels well below acceptable limits: Have photocopiers regularly serviced Ensure that an ozone filter is fitted to photocopiers and laser printers Ensure that there is adequate ventilation

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Sick Building Syndrome


The incidence of illness is significantly higher in some buildings than others.

The symptoms that characterize sick building syndrome are:


Sore eye Running nose Dry skin Dizziness Nausea (feeling going to vomit)

Headaches
Mucous membrane irritation

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Sick Building Syndrome (cont.)


The symptoms is caused by a combination of: Poorly adjusted ventilation Air conditioning Temperature Humidity Lighting Psychological factors such as stress, management style and tedious work schedules

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Lighting
Adequate lighting must be provided.
When artificially lighting is used it should be sufficient so as to avoid visual fatigue and prevent glare or reflection into the workers eyes. Illumination is measured in units of LUX (Lumens per square meters) Suitable light levels based on Malaysia Standards for interior lighting :
- General Background - Routine Office Work - Work with Poor Contrast (Proof reading) 200 lux 400 Lux 600 Lux

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Colors
Colors determine the level of reflectance as follows:
White reflects Light colors Medium colors Dark colors 75% or more of light 50% - 75% (subdued cool colors) 20% - 50% (bright warm colors) 20% or less

White of off-white is recommended for ceiling as they should reflect greater than 80% of light. Walls should have a reflectance between 50-70 per cent have a gloss or

semi-gloss finish.
Walls near windows should be light in color whereas those away from windows should be medium colored below eye level.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Office Floor Space


Workstations should be comfortable with safe and suitable
chairs and sufficient space. Personal space is to allocate 6.25 square meters per individual workstation, including furniture and fitting, but excluding passageways and amenities.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Welfare Facilities
Eating facilities Sanitary facilities Washbasins Adequate facilities for boiling water and taking meals Enough toilets for employees and keep them clean For washing provide running water, soap and towels or other means of drying. One washbasin must be provided for every 20 employees up to 100 employees and one for every 40 employees, or part thereof, after that.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Cleanliness
The standard of cleanliness required will depend on the use to which the office is put. Floors and indoor traffic routes should be cleaned at least once per week. Any waste material that accumulates should be removed on a daily basis. Interior walls, ceiling, windows and work surfaces should be cleaned at suitable standard. Ensure contract office cleaners are given the same health and safety protection as regular office workers.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

OFFICE ENVIRONMENT AND ACCIDENTS


Most office accidents result from slip, trips and falls, lifting objects, punctures or cuts and being caught in or between things. Slips are caused by slippery floors, unclean spillages or grip less shoes. Trips occur over objects lying on the ground or jutting out into aisles or because of poorly maintained floor surfaces. Fall can be from ladders or from standing on chairs to reach an

object.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Every employees should be aware of the following hazards in the office worn of missing stair case worn floor covering slippery floor surfaces broken glasses trailing telephone or electrical leads escape during emergency

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

be warned! REFRAIN from doing the following:


leaving desk drawers open putting furniture where sharp corners protrude standing on swivel chairs leaving obstructions in gangways improper use of or failure to wear safety apparel or equipment where it is provided tampering with safety devices and fire fighting equipment unauthorized tapping or connection of electrical wiring abuse or misuse of equipment working in unauthorized places leaning against or unnecessarily opening glass window refusal to obey warning siren to

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Observed the following safety measure in relation to the use of office furniture/machines:
DESKS stable and in good repair positioned in orderly fashion with good gangways kept tidy surface are cleared at the end of each workday removed any splinters drawers kept shut do not keep food in drawers

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

FILING CABINETS
if possible fixed to walls filled bottom drawers first opened one drawer at a time position where there is plenty of room to open drawers never opened a drawer above someone working at a lower level keep top of cabinets clear shut drawers after use before moving cabinets, empty or remove drawers beware of sharp edges of cabinet frame and drawers

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Wastepaper baskets durable construction never used as ash trays kept out of gangways NEVER put naked razor blade or broken glass in wastepaper baskets
Before operating office machine with moving parts: tie long hair back fasten up loose scarves remove or tuck in ties wear protective equipment where provided

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

When printing and copying follow operating instructions keep guards on when machine are being used power supply cable should in good condition, of correct size, be routed where it will not get damaged, permanently installed and have proper rated fused when using chemicals or solvents check data for possible hazards, follow advice on recommended precautions, were necessary protective clothing, pour the liquid carefully, ensure adequate ventilation

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Observed the following safety measure in relation to the use of office furniture /machines:

keep machine clean and tidy switch off after use and remove plug know how to stop machine in emergency if machine faulty, switch off and report it do not try to repair yourself

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

When using electrical equipment:


wiring should be in good condition, properly connected to machine, securely attached, correct fuse fitted, able to carry the full rated

current, not trail across gangways,


used multi socket block if more than one appliance are powered form one power point

electric fan should be guarded


do not place vases, cups of tea or stored liquid above electrical equipment

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

When using lifts:


enter or exit only when door is fully opened allow passengers in the lift to exit first before entering lift report any malfunction to the building management do not apply excessive force to operate control button or other accessories

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Observed the following safety measure in relation to the use of office furniture/machines: press the necessary up-or-down and floor level buttons do not overload do not lean against or try to force open car or landing door if trapped, remain calm and press alarm button until helps arrive, do not try to escape through car top hatch

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

fire precautions
all employees must be train in evacuation procedure including exit route and assembly point how to use fire fighting equipment keep fire exit do not jam smoke doors fire fighting equipment should be service regularly never leave lighted cigarettes, always extinguish them put cigarettes end and spent matches in ash trays flammable liquids should be: kept away from sources of heat use in the smallest quantity keep in fire proof cans with closed lids

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

OBSERVED TH E FOLLOWING SAFETY MEASURE IN RELATION TO THE USE OF OFFICE FURNITURES/MACHINES:

fire escape routes must be clearly marked fire teams should be formed and trained in fire fighting different type of extinguishers clearly identified

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

OFFICE SAFETY AND HEALTH MEASURES


Formulate a written safety and health policy Establish a safety and health committee includes management and staff Train employees in aspects of OSH e.g. fire drill, manual lifting of weights Prepare an OSH book for staff Prepare and enforce safety and health rules e.g. prohibition on smoking Prepare work safety procedures for high risk work activities arranging files on high rack

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Inspect and monitor workplace conditions by using checklists from time to time Formulate an emergency response plan (ERP) including building plan indicating exit pathways, emergency assembly points and others Establish and train an ER team (ERT) Improve housekeeping at the workplace so that it is free from physical hazards Provide sufficient access to allow employee movement

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

Properly maintain tools and machinery to ensure safe operations Design separate areas to store hazardous materials and label all containers of materials Provide emergency equipment fire extinguishers, hose reel, alarm, first aid box Send staff for health examinations or counseling so that health problems can be detected in early stage Provide induction training stressing on aspect of safety and health to news staff Hold OSH campaigns at the office from time to time

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

CONCLUSION
There are many hazards in the office that can cause accidents and illnesses falling, stumbling and contacting with hazardous objects, musculoskeletal injuries, disease related to the sense and biological problems. There are several legal provisions and guidelines that outline office safety and health which describe specific and general safety measures that need to be taken in workplace situations. A workplace that free from hazards can help an organisation increase productivity and reduce medical and other related costs.

UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering & Technology Management BPS 1113 Occupational Safety & Health Fundamentals

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