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Regional Planning

- Basic Concepts
IP University, Oct 26, 2012 H.B.Singh
(Former) Professor & Head, Regional Planning School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi

Development Planning Consultant (Urban, Rural and Regional Planning)

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Structure of presentation
1.Introduction:
Definitions and contextual concepts of Development and planning

2.Basic understanding of Urbanization


3.Region and Regional planning 4.Delineation of Region 5.Planning for regions,
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Development
WORKING DEFINITION
It is a process of enhancement of quality of life through

1. PRODUCTION, 2. PROVISION and 3. UTILIZATION 4. PEOPLES CHOICE, PARTICIPATION 5. SAFETY, SECURITY


and
Production 1 Provision 2 Utilisation 3 Goods and Services Peoples Choice & Participation Environment and Sustainability Peoples safety & security 5 4 5

OF GOODS AND SERVICES

6. ENVIRONMENTAL
SUSTAINABILITY

Environment and Sustainability

Concept of Development
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DEVELOPMENT PARAMETERS
Physical/Econ omic Quality of Life

Production
Material Aspects Goods & Services

Primary Sector ( Agro-based) Secondary Sector ( Industrial) Tertiary Sector (Services) Physical Infrastructure Social Infrastructure Financial Infrastructure Availability / Access Affordability Consumption Volume Job Opportunity Leadership Consumption / Service Item Political Freedom Decision Making Resource Mobilisation Plan Preparation Plan Implementation Community Based Orgn. Non-Government Orgn. Government Orgn. Co-operatives Natural Disasters Wars, Riots, Group Clashes. Stable Government . Stable Political Economy Soil Quality Sub- Soil Water Vegetative Cover Bio-Diversity Soil Fertility Rain Water Bio-Mass Bio-Diversity

Provision

Utilisation

Choice

DEVELOPMENT

Social Quality of Life

NonMate rial Aspe cts

Participation

Organisations

Safety/ Security

Natural Environmental Quality


Envi ron men tal Sust aina bilit y

Capital

Regeneration Capacity

Assimilative Capacity

Surface Pollution Water Pollution Air Pollution Bio-Diversity Damage

Indicators of Development

A. Outcome Indicators1. Income related

Human development Indicators (HDIs)

2. Health related
3. Awareness / Education related

B. Input Indicators Provision of Infrastructure


1. Physical Infrastructure

2. Social Infrastructure
3. Economic/ Commercial Infrastructure

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Input to Primary Sector Tractors, Tools, Techniques, HYV Seeds etc.

Land ENVIR ONME Water NT Flora Fauna


TECHNO LOGY

Living WorkingACTIVIT

(Landuse)
Nodes (Settlements ) Network (Infrastructur e)

Area

Working (Production) Living (Population Distribution) Mobility (Physical & Functional)

Rural Area Primary Sector

Urban Area 2ndary &Tertiary Sectors

IES

Socialising Movemen t

Output to Secondary & Tertiary Sectors Storage, Processing, Marketing etc.

TECHNO- ECOLOGICAL INTEGRATION

SPATIAL INTEGRATION
Primary Sector Seconda ry Physical Infrastructure Social Infrastructure Economic Infrastructure

RURL URBAN COMPLEMENTARITY

What ?
Sectors

Sector

Tertiary Sector

Who?
Organisation s

How ?
Technoecology

SECTORAL INTEGRATION
LONG TERM PLAN SHORT TERM PLAN ANNUAL PLAN PLANNING PROCESS Survey & Analysis Plan Review

Where ?
Space

When ?
Time

Plan Preparatio n Plan Approv al

Plan Monitorin g Plan Implementati on

COMPONENTS OF INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT

INTEGRATION OF TIME AND PLANNING PROCESS

Definition and meaning of Sustainable Development


1. The adopted definition of sustainable development that

meets the need of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations (Brndtland Commission 1987) by
UN is very general, and ambiguous.

2. World banks definition is more specific and usable - It emphasises

any development project should not exceed the regenerative capacity of the environment ie, the capital of natural resources should not be spent . it is only the cyclic, renewable, additionally accrued natural wealth that should be spent or utilised.
that

Concerns of Sustainable development


1

Economic Growth commensurate with the population

2
3

Use of Resources within Regenerative Capacity

Waste Generation within Assimilative Capacity Appropriate Technology to enhance Regenerative & Assimilative Capacities

4 5

Natural Resource Capital not to be spent

FIVE BASIC CONCERNS OF SUSTAINABLDEVELOPMENT


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Socio-economic System (2ndary & Tirtiary Sector Production, Infrastructure, Institution , Organisation etc)

Man

Activities

Life Support System (Land, Water, Flora, Fauna and Climate, Sun, Rain, Wind etc.)

Nature

Primary Production System (Agriculture, Horticulture, Cattle Rearing, Mining etc.)

Sustainability of Settlement

THE CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY

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Man

Activities
More

Nature

URBAN SRTTLEMENT

Population More Activities 2ndary & Tirtiary Sector Dominance Less Nature & Life Support System

Man

Activities

Less

Nature

Population Less Activities Primary Sector Production Dominance More Nature $ Better Lif Support System

RURAL SETTLEMENT

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PROCESS OF ORGANISING, 1.PEOPLE AND THEIR 2.ACTIVITIES OVER 3.SPACE AND 4.TIME CONSIDERING 5.RESOURCES AND 6.TECHNOLOGY TO ACHIEVE DEVELOPMENT
DEMOGRAPHIC ASPECTS, Popln. Size, Age Gender, Change over time, Literacy, Life expectancy, Migration, WFPR, HIG, MIG, LIG, EWS, BPL SQUATTERS POPLATION

Building, Roads, over bridges, Production, MRTS, Innovative Ideas, Best Practices

TECHNOLOGY

PEOPLE

Natural, Man-made Space bound, Mobile Informal Sector

RESOURCES

ACTIVITIES

LIVING- Housing, Infrastructure WORKING-primary, secondary & Tertiary MOVEMENT- People, Goods & Services RECREATION / SOCIALISATION

Long Time Perspective 20 Years 5 Years Annual

TIME

SPACE

Over all developed Area, Planned Area, Controlled Area, Municipal Area Landuse Areas- Residential, Commercial etc

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BASICS & CONTEXT OF PLANNING

WORKING DEFNITION OF DEVELOPMENT PLANNING PLANNING: It is a process of organising, 1.PEOPLE and their 2.ACTIVITIES over 3.SPACE and 4.TIME considering 5.RESOURCES and 6.TECHNOLOGY to achieve development DEVELOPMENT: It is a process of enhancement of quality of life through 1.PRODUCTION, 2.PROVISION and 3.UTILIZATION OF GOODS AND SERVICES with 4.PEOPLES CHOICE , their 5.SAFETY & SECURITY with 6.ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY
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ENV.SUSTEN.

PRODUCTION

PROCESS OF ENHANCEMENT OF QUALITY OF LIFE THROUGH PRODUCTION, PROVISION AND UTILIZATION OF GOODS AND SERVICES WITH PEOPLES CHOICE , THEIR SAFETY & SECURITY WITH ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

SAFETY

PROVISION

CHOICES

UTILISATION

TECHNOLOGY

PEOPLE

PROCESS OF ORGANISING, PEOPLE AND THEIR ACTIVITIES OVER SPACE AND TIME CONSIDERING RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGY TO ACHIEVE DEVELOPMENT
Constitution

RESOURCES

ACTIVITIES

TIME

SPACE

Legislative

Accountability

Civil Society

Govt.Setup Executive

ORGANISING AND CONTROLLING CIVIL SOCIETY Mrkt. Forces Judiciary AND MARTKET FORCES FOR ITS SOCIAL WELFARE (SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ) Acts/ Laws THROUGH A GOVERNMENT SETUP
Institutions/Offices Functions Plng. Design Implementation Maintenance /Admin

Pub. Disclosure Equity

Transparency

Processes/ procedures

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Economy

Social welfare through Economic Growth, full Employment, Equity and Social justice

Social Welfare

NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN


Organising Population, Economy, Resources and Mobility over Regional Space

Employment

Equity
Land Utilisation

Area

REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN


Node

Settlement Pattern

Networks & Transportation

Linkage

Orderly Development of City for its efficient functioning & enhancement of QOL

Folk

Geddisian

Landuse

triangle
Place Work

CITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Transportation
CIAMs triangle URBAN FORM U.D. Movement Working Recreation

Infrastructure

Evolving Efficient Activities and Space Relationship through layouts and Spatial details

Living

Aesthtic

ZONAL/AREA DEVELOPMENT PLAN

Functional

Sustainable

Plot Development, Buildings, Roads, Water Supply, Power, Sewerage, Drainage, Poverty Alleviaion, P.D.S. etc.

Architecture

Projects
Civil Engg. Socio-economic

PROJECTS / PROGRAMMES

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Fig.2 Development, Planning and Projects: Inter-linkages

URBANISATION Sub- processes of Development : Urbanisation process of change from rural to urban way of life (based on specialisation) Industrialisation Tertiarisation -Without Industrialisation pseudo urbanisation -Gentrification in Developed countries Modernisation Including primary sector. Westernisation After Aryanisation, Persianisation & Colonialisation
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URBANISATION URBANISATION encompasses

A. Social Change
Qualitative change at individual level qualification, attitude, efficiency, priorities, way of life
Change in social institutions marriage, customs, rituals

B. Economic Change
Production Employment

Primary

Secondar y Tertiary

C. Physical / Environmental change


Landuse, infra-structure, slums, settlement pattern

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Evolution of / Conditions for Urbanisation Social Surplus


1. Soil Fertility 2. Technology Input
Specialisation

Emergence of Administrative Group


1. Control -- Government Set-up 2. Security Defence, Army Specialisation

Traders & Merchants Group


1. Collection 2. Distribution 3. Innovation Diffusion Specialisation

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Urbanisation Process and Spatial patterns

1. Decision Making & Control


(Decentralisation)

Spatial Organisation of power

2.Capital Flows
(Industrialisation)

Economic Activity location

3.Innovation Diffusion
(Modernisation)

Modernisation Surfaces

4.Migration
National Capital

Settlement Pattern

State Capital

District HQ

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Capital, Excess produce

Control, Administration, Governance

CORE Labour, Migration

Socio-cultural, tecnological ideas

Friedmans Model

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Xtics of urbanisation in Developed & Developing countries Simultaneous with industrialisation / Tertiarisation Gradual / Fast Share of primary, secondary & tertiary sectors
100% 80 60 40

Tertiary Sector

Secondary Sector
20

Primary Sector
100% 80 60 40 20 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000

Primary Sector Tertiary Sector Secondary Sector


1800 1850 1900 1950 2000

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Sound Social surplus Polarisation in Developing countries Urban Areas exploiting Rural Areas Rural Areas left with old, incompetent and children No rural urban Continuum Urban Areas suffering- slums, crowding

Prospects
Urbanisation as a tool for Reg. Development Rural -Urban-Continuum -proper hierarchy Growth-poles - Balanced Settlement pattern Preventive, Curative Measurement for Rural & Urban Development (slum formation) Simultaneous Job People National Commission on Urbanisation (NCU) GEMs & SPURs (Special Priority Urban Region)

People Village

Town

City

Metropolis

Jobs

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Metropolis

FORWARD AND BACKWARD LINKAGE

Input to Primary Sector Tractors, Tools, Techniques, HYV Seeds etc.

Urban Area 2ndary &Tertiary Sectors


Output to Secondary & Tertiary Sectors Storage, Processing, Marketing etc.

City

Town

RURL URBAN COMPLEMENTARITY

People

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Town

City

Bi-functional

People Village

Town

City

Metropolis

Jobs

Multi-functional Tri-functional Mono-functional

City

Town

FORWARD AND BACKWARD LINKAGE & VARIED FUNCTIONALTIES

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URBANISATION / GLOBALISATION

Homogeneous Region

Nodal region

Devlpd Area

Developed Country

Devlpng Area

Developing Country

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Indian Urbanisation
Historical perspective-Aryanisation, Persianisation & Colonialisation (Nodes & Networks.. Civil lines etc.. CLASSIFICATION OF STATES AND UTS ACCORDING TO LEVEL OF URBANISATION

2001

Above national average i.e. 27.75% Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, A&N Islands, Chandigarh, Daman & Diu, Delhi, Lakshwadeep and Pondicherry. (14 states)

25%-28%

Less than 25%

National Average

27.75%

Andhra Pradesh, Kerela, M.P., West Bengal, Uttaranchal. (5 states)

Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, H.P., J&K, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, U.P., Dadra Nagar Haveli, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh. (16 states)

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Regional Planning
Organising Spatial Economy in a Region

Organising people, their activities and resources over regional space and time for Development

Aims:

Economic Growth ( where? How much? When?)


Full Employment ( People job) Equity ( political, social, & economic) Objectives: Maximum utilisation of mobile factors

Integrated Sectoral Programme


Invent new resources Pinpoint national problems at regional levels
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REGION: A territorial area of similar characteristics, which is bigger than local area and smaller than the country/nation. Attributes of a Region: 1. Entity (Discernible, contiguous) 2. Similarity / commonality (not homogeneity) 3. Scale (manageable, operational) Types of Region; 1. Natural (hills, deserts etc)/ Cultural(Jharkhand,Telangana, Rayalsimha
cow belt. etc)

2. Functional (Agric, Resource etc) / Formal( Admin. States, Distts) 3. Special / Ad hoc / Arbitrary (Flood, earthquake, Dacoity prone) 4. Regions of Convenience (Postal, Telephones, Railways) 5. Planning Regions
Nodal Homogeneous

Special

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Nodal Region

Homogeneous Region

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Regionalisation & Regional Delineation


Regionalisation Process of dividing the area of concern into pockets (regions) of similar characteristics.
e.g. Administrative Regln. - States *Geographic *Cultural ,, ,, - Hills, deserts, Coasts, plateaus - Punjabi, marathi, gujrati spkng areas
H H N H H H

*Planning (by Plng Commission) 15 Agro-clmtc Regions. *Plng. (physical Planners0 - TCPOs
H
H H H H

H
N

H
H H

Regional Delineation-

Conceptual /Theoretical Process of identification of planning regions.


Demarcation- Actual identification on site.
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Delineation Techniques for Nodal Regions

1. Boundary Girdle Method

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2. Gravitational Method

Iab
a b d

Pa.Pb = 2 d

bd

I = Gravitation Index
Big City Small settlement Distance between them

Population size

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3. Transitory Belt Method


( where there are other nodal regions surrounding the nodal region to be delineated)

(Using generally gravitational technique)

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Delineation of Homogeneous Region

4.Composite Index Method 5.Principal Index Method Techniques depended on


Purpose Scale Parameters Smallest Areal Units with discernible boundaries

New techniques based on I.T.


-Sattellite imageries etc. which are accurate which are more reliable -- to be rationalised for actual demarcation on ground ( village boundaries)

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Relevance of Delineation Decreasing because of administrative boundaries are fixed and difficult to change to new organisational set up needed for planning & development .

References: Friedman and Alanso Regional Planning in India (L.S.Bhatt) Prof. Ansaris Reader Volume (SPA) Berrys Spatial Organisation Glassons

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REGIONAL PLANNING Approach & Methodology.


Plng. For NODAL REGION / Metro- City Region
Xtics. - Dynamic Urban / industrial dev. Dominant Dev. Impulse radiated / transmitted through settlement pattern Excessive conc. In the node Stress condn. In nodes (water, power supply)

Analysis for Inter & intra regional settlements & linkage mainly
Function Urban character Mobility

Techniques
Summit Technique (Potentiality & Propensity) Grid Tech Network Analysis Contours / Isopleths Remote sensing/ Satellite images Layering technique ( in intensively dev. Areas)

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REGIONAL PLANNING Approach & Methodology. Strategic Approach NODAL REGION / Metro- City Region

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Locational decentralisation / distraction of Investments Tertiarisation Consumer based, high tech. industries Node --- Linkage ---- Area Intervention in Settlement Pattern (G.P.,G.C.) Initiation Reinforcement Counter Magnets Complementary Magnets

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REGIONAL PLANNING Approach & Methodology.


Plng. For Homogeneous Region
Xtics. - Non-Dynamic Primary / trade sector Dominant Dev. Impulse does not radiated / transmitted effectively through settlement pattern Preponderance of mandi towns/ small settlements in the region

Analysis for Inter & intra regional settlements & linkage mainly
Diversification of primary sector Functions- Primary to secondary & teritiary sec linkage Areal disparity and imbalance in prodn. & infrastructure Mobility Spatial development. Index method Grid Tech Network Analysis Contours / Isopleths Remote sensing/ Satellite images Layering technique ( in intensively dev. Areas)

Techniques

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REGIONAL PLANNING Approach & Methodology. Strategic Approach


1. Correcting imbalance through judicious Land utilisation 2. Resource based labour intensive Industries 3. Provision of Infrastructre 4. Area ---- Linkage --5. Intervention in Settlement Pattern (G.P.,G.C.) Initiation Reinforcement

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Role of Regional Planning in Urban Planning & Design

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Population size and developed area required Functional base Development Form and pattern Landuse priorities (for basic fns.) Cultural profile &imageability Quantum of informal sector / squatters Sustainability Pressure on land (popln. Cattle) Supply area of Water, food, milk, horticultural produces Environmental- crowding pollution Decentralised approach Regenerative & Assimilative capacity

The END
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PHENOMENON OF URBAN DEV. Some places attract 1.People and 2.Economic Activities due to location advantage and regional resource endowment They physically manifest in 3. Area, 4. Nodes, 5. Networks
Industrial

DC

CBD Institutional

ASPECTS OF URBAN DEV. PLNG


1. Population
DC

2. Functional or Economic Base Mono, Bi & MultiFnl mandi, admin, etc. 3. Area Landuses, Dist. Sectors 4. Nodes- CBD, DC, Rly Stn, Ports, Tourist points etc. 5. Networks (Transportation) 6. Infrastructure
Industrial 7. Environment

CBD Institutional

8. Organisation & Management

Regional Aspects
A. What does Regional aspect study contributes to UDP
Size and density

Functional/ economic Base


Direction of growth through regional linkages and flows Location of wholesale markets, depots, traffic nodes, truck terminus, bulk handling activities etc. Major transport network

B. Information needed to be collected


Size, type, location and linkages of the adjoining urban centres

Same size UC in the surrounding area.


Types of flows and direction Basic functions. Regional roads- through, terminating and originating traffic volume and size.