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Preferred Utilities Manufacturing Corp.

Burner Management Systems

A Technical Discussion

Preferred Utilities Manufacturing Corp.


Introduction Burner

Management System Objectives BMS Design Standards and Definitions BMS Logic BMS Strategies and Hardware

Types of Burner Management Systems

BMS

Interface to SCADA Systems Summary

Introduction
Burner Management Systems..

..a starting point.

Introduction What is a BMS?


A

Burner Management System is defined as the following:


A Control System that is dedicated to boiler safety, operator assistance in the starting and stopping of fuel preparation and burning equipment, and the prevention of mis-operation of and damage to fuel preparation and fuel burning equipment. 1

1. From NFPA 8501 Standard for Single Burner Boiler Operation

Burner Management Objectives


Sequence

burner through safe start-up Insure a complete pre-purge of boiler Supervise safety limits during operation Supervise the flame presence during operation Sequence a safe shutdown at end of cycle Integrate with combustion control system for proper fuel and air flows

BMS Design Standards

Each Burner Management System should be designed in accordance with the below listed guidelines to control and monitor all sequences of the start-up and shutdown of the burner

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 8501 /8502 or others) Industrial Risk Insurers (IRI) Factory Mutual loss prevention guidelines

Each burner management system should be designed to accomplish a safety shutdown in the event of an unsafe condition. (FAIL SAFE)

BMS Design Standards


U.S.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)


Governs safety system design on virtually all boilers (regardless of the process to be used to combust the fuel) Requires the separation of the Burner Management System from any other control system Requires the use of a hardwired backup tripping scheme for microprocessor based systems Requires that a single failure NOT prevent an appropriate shutdown Factory Mutual loss prevention guidelines.

NFPA 8501
NFPA

8501 Standard for Single Burner Boiler Operation


Single Burner Boilers with fuel input greater than 12.5 mBTU/Hr (Approx. 250 BHP) Single Fuel or Combination of Fuels (Common being Natural Gas / No.2 Oil / No. 6 Oil) Simultaneous Firing

NFPA 8502
NFPA

8502 Standard for Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers

Multiple Burner Boilers with fuel input greater than 12.5 mBTU/Hr Single Fuel or Combination of Fuels including Pulverized Coal Emphasis on implosion protection (larger boilers with induced draft systems)

BMS Definitions
Furnace

Explosions

Ignition of accumulated combustible mixture within the confined space of a furnace or associated boiler passes, ducts, and fans that convey gases of combustion to the stack1 Magnitude and intensity of explosion depends on relative quantity of combustibles and the proportion of air at the time of ignition

1. From NFPA 8502 Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers

BMS Definitions
Furnace

Explosions can occur with any or a combination of the following:1


Momentary loss of flame followed by delayed reignition Fuel leakage into an idle furnace ignited by source of ignition (such as a welding spark) Repeated Light-off attempts without proper purging Loss of Flame on one Burner while others are in operation Complete Furnace Flame-out followed by an attempt to light a burner

1. From NFPA 8502 Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers

BMS Definitions
Furnace

Implosions

More common in large Utility Boilers Caused by any of the following: Malfunction of equipment regulating boiler gas flow resulting in furnace exposure to excessive induced draft fan head capability Rapid decay for furnace gas temperature and pressure due to furnace trip

1. From NFPA 8502 Prevention of Furnace Explosions / Implosions in Multiple Burner Boilers

BMS Basic Definitions


Common

Terminology

Supervised Manual
Manual Burner Lightoff with Interlocks

Automatic Recycling (Single Burner Only)


Automatic Burner Start and Stop based on preset operating range (ie.. Drum pressure)

Automatic Non Recycling (Single Burner Only)


Automatic Burner Start and Stop based on Manual command to start.

Types of Flame Scanners


Infrared

(IR) Detectors

Single Burner Applications More Suitable with Oil Burning Flames

Ultra-Violet

(UV) Detectors

Multiple Burner Applications More Suitable for Gas Burners and Combination Gas / Oil Burners

Self

Check Scanners

Flame Signal is interrupted at set intervals to verify proper operation of scanner

Single Burner BMS Inputs


Low Low Drum Level High Steam Pressure
(D) (D) (D)

Purge Purge Air Flow Minimum Air Flow


(D)

Li m i t s M ade H d t o Pur ge ol
S CR L RES ET M O DE

Flame / No Flame

(D)

BURNER O FF

O N

F UEL SEL ECT G AS

O I L

FD HAND

F AN O FF

AUT O

Fuel Oil Temp Low Fuel Oil Press Low

(D)

Fuel Oil Temp High (D)


(D)

Fuel Oil Flow (A) Atomizing Medium Flow > Min Atomizing Medium Press Low

(D)

AE (D)

TE

Common Alarm Output

(D)

Remote Annunciator (By Others)


PSH PSL PT FT PSH

FEEDW ATER STEAM

IGNITER GAS

Safety Shut Off & Vent Valves

LSLL

LSLL

Fuel Gas Press Low


(D)

Fuel Gas Press High


(D) PSL PSL

FT

PSL

TSH

TSL

FS

OIL

Safety Shut Off Valves

Control Valve (D) - Descrete Signal Used By Flame Safeguard System

ATOMIZING MEDIUM

Control Valve & Shut Off Valve

FT

PSL

PSH

GAS

Safety Shut Off & Vent Valves

Control Valve

BMS Logic
Burner

Management Systems can be broken down into Interlock Groups Typical BMS Interlock Groups:

Boiler Purge Igniter Header Valve Management Main Fuel Header Valve Management MFT (Master Fuel Trip) Logic

Purge Interlocks
BOILER TRIPPED AND PURGE / RESET PB START-UP TIMER START FD FAN PERMISSIVES SATISFIED: - MAIN FUEL VALVES CLOSED
- NO FLAME PRESENT - FD FAN RUNNING - MINIMUM AIR FLOW SWITCH MADE - WATER LEVEL SATISFACTORY - ATOMIZING MEDIUM ON - FUEL SUPPLY PRESSURE NOT LOW

AND

ENERGIZE FUEL RELAY NOT PURGE SIGNAL TO CCS AND

PURGE AIR FLOW SWITCH MADE

AND

FD DAMPER IN FULL OPEN POSITION

PURGE TIMER SET

PURGE COMPLETE
YES

NO

REMOVE PURGE TO CCS

SYSTEM TRIP

Igniter Interlocks
PURGE COMPLETE AIR DAMPER IN LOW FIRE POSITION AND FUEL VALVE IN LOW FIRE POSITION

ENERGIZE IGNITER AND IGNITER HEADER VALVES

10 SECOND DELAY

10 SEC PILOT TRIAL FOR IGNITION

TIMER COMPLETE FLAME PROVEN NOT

AND

SYSTEM TRIP PERMIT FOR MAIN FLAME

Main Flame Interlocks


IGNITER TIMER COMPLETE FLAME PROVEN AND ENERGIZE MAIN FUEL VALVES 10 SEC MAIN FLAME TRIAL

TIMER COMPLETE NOT

AND

DE-ENERGIZE IGNITION COMPONENTS

RELEASE TO MODULATE TO CCS

SYSTEM TRIP

Single Burner Main Fuel Trip


FOR OIL:
- LOWFUEL PRESSURE - LOW TEM PERATURE (HEATED OILS) - LOSS OF COM BUSTION AIR - LOSS OF FLAME OR FAIL TO ESTABLISH - LOSS OF CONTROL SYSTEMENERGY - POWER FAILURE - LOWWATER LEVEL (AUXLEVEL CONTACT) - LOSS OF ATOM IZING M EDIUM - EXCESSIVE STEAMDRUMPRESSURE - HIGH OIL TEM PERATURE (HEATED OILS)

FOR GAS:
- LOW FUEL GAS PRESSURE - HIGH GAS PRESSURE - LOSS OF COM BUSTION AIR - LOSS OF FLAME OR FAIL TO ESTABLISH - LOSS OF CONTROL SYSTEMENERGY - POWER FAILURE - LOWWATER LEVEL (AUXLEVEL CONTACT) - EXCESSIVE STEAMDRUMPRESSURE

OR OR

TRIP BOILER

TRIP IGNITER, IGNITER VALVES, OPEN IGNITER VENT

TRIP MAIN FUEL VALVES, OPEN VENT VALVE (GAS ONLY)

FUEL CONTROL VALVE TO CLOSED POSITION

TRIP MFT RELAY

BMS System Types


Early

Burner Management Systems

Hardwired Systems Solid State Systems

Microprocessor

Based Systems

Fireye E110 / Honeywell 7800 series with fixed Logic.

PLC

Based Systems

Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Based Powerful, versatile, expandable, more reliable.

Early Burner Management Systems


Hardwired

Systems

Relay and Timer Driven. Found on older installations Typical of Late 50s, 60s

Solid

State Systems

Solid State Processors and Relays Found on Systems provided in the 70s and 80s Proprietary Hardware (ie.. Forney and Peabody) Spare Parts are extremely hard to find.

MicroProcessor Based Systems


Microprocessor

Based System providing:

Burner Sequencing Ignition Flame Monitoring

Fixed

Program with Limited Configuration Changes Components Selected Based on Requirements

Programmers, Flame Amplifiers, Message Displays

Fireye BMS Layout

AMPLIFIER EP PROGRAMMER

AUTOMATIC PRIMARY SAFETY CONTROL

FIELD WIRING

FIELD WIRING

FLAME SCANNER

MicroProcessor Capabilities
Simple,

Cost Effective Features


Selectable Flame Amplifiers / Scanners Remote Display Remote Data Communications via Modbus Port Modernization kits are available to integrate with older systems Spare Parts Normally Readily Available

When These Systems are Used


Simple

Boiler Installations

Packaged Firetube / Watertube Boilers (Steam / Hot Water) Single Burner One Fuel at a Time No Flue Gas Re-Circulation Upgrades from Previous MicroProcessor Based Systems

PLC Based Burner Management Systems

PLC Based Features


NFPA 8501, 8502 Watchdog timer UL 508 Certification

Redundant Scanners Logic+ Message Center

Shows program status Displays alarms Prompts operator

PLC System Basic Design Features

Each PLC based burner management system should incorporate a number of design techniques which help detect and act upon unsafe failure modes which can occur in any microprocessor based system. These design features include the following:

Critical Input Checking Critical output channel monitoring Electro-mechanical Master Fuel Trip (MFT) Relay Redundant Watchdog Timers Low Water Cut-out Monitoring During Blow Down

PLC Based System Capabilities


Provision

for Multiple Fuel Firing

Capped gas input during curtailment Changeover from gas to oil at any load Simultaneous firing of waste and fossil fuels

Redundant

Scanners, change scanner with fuel Single or Multiple Burner Applications Integration of BMS with SCADA

PLC Based Operator Interfaces


Features

Clear Written Messages to indicate status, required operator interaction, trip/alarm indication High Visibility through two lines of display Messages reduce time consuming troubleshooting Prioritizes Messages
First Out Alarms Warning / Alarm Messages Status Messages / Prompts Operator

PLC System Layout (Typical)


Door Mounted Lights / Pushbuttons

Logic+ Message Display

SW ITCH

SILENCE

LIGHT

PLC CPU

I/O

I/O

I/O

I/O

COMBUSTION CONTROL SYSTEM


FLAME AMPLIFIER (SINGLE / REDUNDANT)
I/O EXPANSION I/O

FIELD DEVICES

Benefits of PLC Based Systems


Flexibility

/ Reliability

Programming Software allows changes to system

Choice

of PLCs

GE / Modicon / Allen Bradley / Koyo

Choice

of Flame Scanners

PPC / Fireye / Honeywell / Iris / Coen

Application

Specific Quantity of Burners / Fuels is not restricted

When to Use PLC Based Systems


Complex

Boiler Installations

Larger Packaged Units / Field Erected Units Multiple Burners Multiple Fuels, On-line Fuel Changeovers Flue Gas Re-Circulation Replace Existing Relay Logic Systems Requirement to maintain consistent control platform (spare parts, etc..)

BMS SCADA Interface


BMS

Systems can be integrated into a SCADA System


Allows Remote Monitoring of Flame Status Allows Remote Control of BMS Events (ie.. Burner trip) can be routed to Historical Portion of SCADA for fault evaluation Burner Operation can be trended over time

BMS SCADA Interface


Interface

Methods:
SCADA PC

MODBUS COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

Communication Interface (If Necessary)

MODBUS COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL

PLC CPU

I/O

I/O

I/O

I/O

BMS LOGIC+ SYSTEM FIREYE E110 SYSTEM

BMS SCADA Interface

Summary
Benefits

Associated with New Burner Management Systems


Help Improve plant safety Help qualify for reduced insurance cost Reduce Startup and Down Time with comprehensive alarming and diagnostics

Summary
Review

of Topics Discussed

Objectives of Burner Management Systems BMS Design Considerations Basic BMS Logic Types of Burner Management Systems How BMS Systems can be integrated with Plant Wide SCADA Systems

Preferred Utilities Manufacturing Corp

For further information, contact...

Preferred Utilities Manufacturing Corporation


31-35 South St. Danbury CT T: (203) 743-6741 F: (203) 798-7313 www.preferred-mfg.com