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Gathering Performance Information: Overview

Appraisal Forms Characteristics of Appraisal Forms Determining Overall Rating Appraisal Period and Number of Meetings Who Should Provide Performance Information? A Model of Rater Motivation Preventing Rating Distortion through Rater Training Programs
Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Major Components of Appraisal Forms (1)


Basic Employee Information Accountabilities, Objectives, and Standards Competencies and Indicators

Major Achievements and Contributions


Stakeholder Input

Employee Comments
Signatures
Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006
Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Major Components of Appraisal Forms (2)


(could be included in a separate form)
Developmental Achievements Developmental
Needs Plans Goals

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Desirable Features for All Appraisal Forms


Simplicity Relevancy Descriptiveness Adaptability Comprehensiveness Definitional Clarity Communication Time Orientation

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Determining Overall Rating


Judgmental strategy Mechanical strategy

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Appraisal period
Number of Meetings
Annual Semi-annual Quarterly

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

When Review Is Completed


Anniversary date
Supervisor doesnt have to fill out forms at same time Cant tie rewards to fiscal year

Fiscal year
Rewards tied to fiscal year Goals tied to corporate goals May be burden to supervisor, depending on implementation

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

6 Types of Formal Meetings


(can be combined)
System Inauguration Self-Appraisal Classical Performance Review Merit/Salary Review Development Plan Objective Setting

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Who Should Provide Performance Information?


Employees should be involved in selecting Which sources evaluate Which performance dimensions
When employees are actively involved Higher acceptance of results Perception that system is fair
Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006
Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Who Should Provide Performance Information? Direct knowledge of employee performance


Supervisors Peers Subordinates Self Customers

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Supervisors
Advantages
Best position to evaluate performance vs. strategic goals Make decisions about rewards

Disadvantages
Supervisor may not be able to directly observe performance Evaluations may be biased

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Peers
Advantages
Assess teamwork

Disadvantages
Possible friendship bias May be less discriminating

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Subordinates
Advantages
Accurate when used for developmental purposes Good position to assess some competencies

Disadvantages
Inflated when used for administrative purposes May fear retaliation (confidentiality is key)

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Self
Advantages
Increased acceptance of decisions Decreased defensiveness during appraisal interview Good position to track activities during review period

Disadvantages
May be more lenient and biased

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Customers (external and internal)


Advantages
Employees become more focused on meeting customer expectations

Disadvantages
Time Money

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Disagreement Across Sources


Expect disagreement Ensure employee receives feedback by source Assign differential weights to scores by source, depending on importance

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Types of Rating Errors


Intentional errors
Rating inflation Rating deflation

Unintentional errors
Due to complexity of task

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

A Model of Rater Motivation


Expected Positive and Negative Consequences of Rating Accuracy Motivation to Provide Accurate Ratings Probability of Experiencing Positive & Negative Consequences

Rating Behavior

Expected Positive and Negative Consequences of Rating Distortion

Motivation to Distort Ratings

Probability of Experiencing Positive & Negative Consequences

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Motivations for Rating Inflation


Maximize merit raise/rewards Encourage employees Avoid creating written record Avoid confrontation with employees Promote undesired employees out of unit Make manager look good to his/her supervisor

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Motivations for Rating Deflation


Shock employees Teach a lesson Send a message to employee Build a written record of poor performance

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Prevent Rating Distortion through Rater Training Programs

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Rater Training Programs should cover:


Information Motivation Identifying, observing, recording and evaluating performance How to interact with employees when they receive performance information

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Information - how the system works


Reasons for implementing the performance management system Information on the appraisal form and system mechanics

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Motivation Whats in it for me?


Benefits of providing accurate ratings Tools for providing accurate ratings

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

Identifying, observing, recording, and evaluating performance


How to identify and rank job activities How to observe, record, measure performance How to minimize rating errors

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

How to interact with employees when they receive performance information


How to conduct an appraisal interview How to train, counsel, and coach

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2006

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver