Sei sulla pagina 1di 17

Basic scheme of the seismic data processing

Measurements Loading of the data/conversion Navigation Demultiplexing Geometry Editing Amplitude correction Frequency filter Deconvolution CMP-Sorting Velocity
Measurements
Loading of the data/conversion
Navigation
Demultiplexing
Geometry
Editing
Amplitude correction
Frequency filter
Deconvolution
CMP-Sorting
Velocity analysis
Pre-Processing
Prestack
NMO/DMO-Correction
Stacking
Migration
Post-processing
Poststack
Printing/storage
Printing/storage

DMO (Dip move-out)

A seismic processing operation to correct for the fact

that, for dipping reflections, the traces of a CMP

gather do not involve a common reflection point. DMO effectively corrects for the reflection-point

smear that results when reflectors dip.

Events with various dips stack with the same velocity after DMO.

(DMO can be performed in a number of ways)

Sheriff, 1991

Dip move out (DMO)

Dip move out (DMO)
Dip move out (DMO) Horizontal Reflector CMP = CDP Dipping Reflector CMP CDP CMP = common

Horizontal Reflector

CMP = CDP
CMP = CDP

Dipping Reflector

CMP CDP
CMP CDP

CMP = common mid point CDP = common depth point

Loci of reflection points

Loci of reflection points Zero offset: coincident Source (S) and geophone (G) Common offset: offset between

Zero offset: coincident Source (S) and geophone (G)

Loci of reflection points Zero offset: coincident Source (S) and geophone (G) Common offset: offset between

Common offset: offset between Source (S) and geophone (G)

Show possible reflection points for one particular traveltime

DMO correction

DMO correction NMO: coordinate transformation from A (y ,t) to B (y t ) DMO: coordinate

NMO:

DMO correction NMO: coordinate transformation from A (y ,t) to B (y t ) DMO: coordinate

coordinate transformation from A (y n ,t) to B (y n, t n ) DMO:

coordinate transformation from B (y n ,t n ) to C (y 0 -t 0 ) Zero-offset migration:

coordinate transformation from C (y 0 -t 0 ) to D (y m ,t)

Dip Move out (DMO)

Dip Move out (DMO)
Dip Move out (DMO)

Marine line over a salt structure

Cases of conflicting dip Analysis of data without DMO correction Analysis of data with DMO correction

(following pictures are obtained from Yilmaz, 2001)

Selected CMP gathers from a 2D marine dataset

NMO DMO NMO -1 Yilmaz, 2001
NMO
DMO
NMO -1
Yilmaz, 2001

Velocity spectrum

Velocity spectrum Without DMO correction (smearing of data) With DMO correction Yilmaz, 2001

Without DMO correction

(smearing of data)

With DMO correction

Yilmaz, 2001

Close-up view of the velocity spectrum and CMP gather

Close-up view of the velocity spectrum and CMP gather Without DMO correction Yilmaz, 2001

Without DMO correction

Yilmaz, 2001

Close-up view of the velocity spectrum and CMP gather

Close-up view of the velocity spectrum and CMP gather With DMO correction Yilmaz, 2001

With DMO correction

Yilmaz, 2001

Velocity field used to stack the CMP gathers

Velocity field used to stack the CMP gathers Without DMO correction With DMO correction With DMO:

Without DMO correction

With DMO correction

With DMO: less smearing: more detailed velocity field

Yilmaz, 2001

NMO correction of DMO corrected gathers

NMO correction of DMO corrected gathers Without lateral varying and with lateral varying velocity Yilmaz, 2001

Without lateral varying and with lateral varying velocity

Yilmaz, 2001

Field example of DMO correction

NMO
NMO
DMO
DMO
NMO -1
NMO -1
NMO
NMO
   

Stacking

 

CMP stack

DMO stack

   

Migration

 

Migrated CMP stack

Migrated DMO stack

CMP stack

and

DMO stack

Amplitudes of reflections off the flanks of the salt

have similar amplitude as

flat events

Yilmaz, 2001

Comparison between Migration of CMP stack and DMO stack Amplitudes of reflections off the flanks of

Comparison between Migration of CMP stack

and

DMO stack

Amplitudes of reflections off the flanks of the salt

have higher amplitude

Yilmaz, 2001

Time migration of CMP and DMO stack

Time migration of CMP and DMO stack Yilmaz, 2001

Yilmaz, 2001