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Chapter 15

According to Rizal: If we are to understand fully our past, these materials (about the Philippines and Filipinos) have to be collected and synthesized.
- Rizal recognized the generous assistance extended to him by Rost and Blumentritt, as well as the friendliness of Virchow, Jagor, Nordmann and other German scholar.


submitted the idea to Blumentritt in January 14, 1889 to study the Philippines from the scientific and historical point of view


President .................... Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt Vice-President ............ Mr. Edmund Plauchut Counsellor .................. Dr. Reinhold Rost Counsellor .................. Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor Secretary .................... Dr. Jose Rizal


scheduled the holding of the inaugural convention in Paris in August 1889

invited Dr. Rost, Sir Henry Yule, Dr. Jagor, Dr. AB Meyer, Dr. H. Kern and Dr. Czepelak government discouraged the holding of conferences by private organization during the period of the international exposition





Will last only during the exposition March 19, 1889 (same day he arrived from London) Antonio and Juan Luna, Gregorio Aguilera, Fernando Canon, Lauro Dimayuga, Julio Llorente, Guillermo Puatu, and Baldomero Roxas To bring together the young Filipinos in the French capital during the duration of the Universal Exposition


Exposition was opened on May 6, 1889

Highlighted by the cutting of ribbon by Sadi Carnor, the French president

Filipinos that participated in the Intl Art Competition

Rizal, Hidalgo, Luna, Felix Pardo de Tavera, Moreno Carbonero, and Gisbert



Replaced Kidlat Club Members pledged to excel

in intellectual and physical prowess in order to win the admiration of the foreigners, particularly the Spaniards Sword and pistol Rizal taught them Judo


R.D.L.M (Redencion de los

Aim was the propagation of all useful knowledge in the Philippines Redemption of the Malay race Patterned after Freemasonry Various degrees of membership with the members not knowing each other


by a famous book entitled Max Havelaar (1860) by Multatuli

Exposed the miserable conditions of the oppressed Malay inhabitants of the Netherlands East Indies under Dutch rule


of Annotated Edition of Morgas Sucesos Por Telefono (under the pen name Dimas Alang) Project for Filipino College in Hong Kong

P40,000 was pledged by Mariano Cunanan


La Indolencia de los Filipinos Filipinas Dentro de Cien Aos

Sobre La Indolencia delos Filipinos On the Indolence of the Filipinos

Longest essay Rizal wrote in La Solidaridad published in 5 installments from July 15 to September 15, 1890 It represents his defense of the Filipinos from the charge that they were inherently lazy or indolent

Indolence for him is defined as inactiveness, little love for work, or complete disregard work, and had become a way of life for many Filipinos.

Sobre La Indolencia delos Filipinos On the Indolence of the Filipinos

Filipinos were not born lazy but a predisposition to become lazy. It was the European who was the paragon of laziness in the tropics. Morga, San Agustin, Colin Pre-Spanish Filipinos were noted for their activity and honesty The social malady was not something inborn or hereditary. What therefore led to the collapse of this natural willingness of the Filipinos to work??

The deterioration of the industry of the Filipinos can be attributed to two set of factors. Those attributable to the Spanish colonizers: 1. Wars and Internal disorders that followed Spanish conquest
Inhabitants of the Philippines were plunged to maintain the honor of Spain. San Agustin, they have been greatly diminished because the natives are the best sailors and most skillful rowers on the whole coast; and so the provincial governors in the port of Ilo-ilo take most of the people from this town for the expeditions they send abroad 50000 families to 14000 families (Panay)

2. Piratical Attacks on Coastal Towns and Villages by Muslim Pirates

Encouraged by the government Christian Filipinos

3. Forced Labor in Shipbuilding

ships used for Acapulco Trading Fernando de los Rios Coronel, the antive towns of the surrounding country had to be depopulated in order to get it out with immense labor, damage, and cost of them. . . 6000 natives , 40 reales every month without giving them food

4. Governments Neglect and Apathy to Agriculture, Industry, and commerce

only Galleon Trade was permitted

5. Absence of Material and Moral Incentives To work Harder

Mans works for an object; remove the object and you reduce him to inaction

6. The Teaching of the Spanish Missionaries That Heaven is for the Poor
The curate says that the rich man will not go to heaven; the rich man on earth is exposed to all kinds of trouble

7. Too much Government Restriction and Red Tape In The Approval of Permit To Transact Business

8. Encouragement and Propagation Of Gambling

Tagalog words: sabong and tari ( cockfight and spur) Spanish orgin: soltada, pusta, logro, pago, sentenciador, cas, sugal, taya, parisparis.

9. Ownership of the Big Estates by the Friars

For some time, the friars have decided by making them believe that if these estates were prospering, it was because they were under their care, and the indolence of the native was thus emphasized.

10.Example Set By the Spaniards in Disdaining Manual Labor

The pernicious example of the rulers, that of surrounding themselves with servants and of despising manual or hard labor. The desire to be the equal of the masters

11.Deprivation of Human Dignity

The principal and most terrible of all Brutalizing, depressive, and anti-human Deprive a man then of his dignity and you not only deprive him of his moral strength

Those attributable to the Filipinos own faults:

1. Feeling of inferiority
2. Placing Hopes on Miracles

3. Lack of Spirit to Pursue Lofty Purposes

4. Lack of National Sentiment

Filipinas Dentro De Cien Aos

came out as a series of four articles in La Solidaridad from

September 30, 1889 to February 1, 1890 to forecast the future of the country within a hundred years Tried to respond to the questions:

What would become of the Philippines within one hundred years? Would the Philippines remain a colony of Spain? Would it become a regular province of Spain? Would it become independent or would it be a colony of another nation?

This essay starts with an analysis of the causes of the miseries of the people. Spains implementation of her military policies -the country was depopulated -poverty became widespread -families and farmlands were neglected

Deterioration and disappearance of Filipino indigenous culture -destruction of native ways of living of the people -peoples lost of confidence in the past . . .lost of faith in the present . . .lost of hope in the future
Passivity and submissiveness to the Spanish colonizers -culture of silence

What then had made the people realize their sad plight under the Spanish tutelage? As a result of racial discrimination, the Filipinos became aware that they were a distinct people.

Could Spain prevent the progress of the Philippines?

Should Spain decide to do so, what could she possibly do: keep the people ignorant; keep the people in poverty; or exterminate the Filipino race?

Keeping the people ignorant had failed. Recourse to impoverishment was also futile. Extermination of the people as an alternative to

hindering progress was an impossibility.

Can the divide et empera policy still work to foster enmity between and among the natives?

There is a need for Spain to change her colonial policy in the Philippines.

Third article of Rizals essay: -centered on the reforms and political changes needed for the Philippines to remain under Spanish rule
Freedom of the press in the country representation of the Filipinos in the Spanish Cortes Granting of Spanish citizenship to the people Filling of the government positions through competitive

examinations Reforms in commerce, agriculture and education Greater security for the individual

Fourth article of Rizals essay: - stages that would lead the Philippines to independence

Prediction of Rizal that Spain would be replaced by other colonizers

Which colonizing power will replace Spain? - European powers? England, Germany, France, Holland - Asian powers? China, Japan -United States of America The Great American Republic

On May 1, 1898, the Americans entered the Philippines and wrestled from Spain the control of the Philippines. Fifty years after Rizals death, the independence of the country was recognized on July 4, 1946. This was in fulfillment of what predicted in his essay. He was a visionary and very prophetic when he said that:

History does not record in its annals any lasting domination by one people over

another, of different races, of diverse usages and customs, of opposite and

divergent ideas. One of the two had to yield and succumb.

Significant passages in this historical essay are as follows: To recapitulate: the Philippines will remain Spanish if they enter upon the life of law and civilization, if the rights of their inhabitants are respected, if the other rights due them are granted, if the liberal policy of the government is carried out without trickery or meanness, without subterfuges or false interpretations.

Otherwise, if an attempt is made to see in the Islands a lode to be exploited, a resource to satisfy ambitions. . Shutting its ears to all cries of reason, then, however great may be the loyalty of the Filipinos, it will be impossible to hinder the operations of the inexorable laws of history. Colonies established to subserve the policy and commerce of the sovereign country, all eventually become independent. . . If the Philippines secure their independence after heroic and stubborn conflict, they can rest assured that neither England nor Germany, nor France, and still less Holland will dare to take up Spain has been unable to hold.

Perhaps the great American Republic, whose interests lie in the Pacific and who had no hand in the spoliation of Africa may some day dream of foreign possession. This is not impossible, for the example is contagious, covetousness and ambition are among the strongest vices.

Very likely, the Philippines will defend with inexpressible valor the liberty secures at the price of so much blood and sacrifice. With the new men that will spring from their soil and with the recollection of their past, they will perhaps strive to enter freely upon the wide road to progress, and all will labor together to strengthen their fatherland. . . Then the mines will be made to give up their gold for relieving distress, iron for weapons, copper, lead, and coal. Perhaps the country will revive the maritime and mercantile life for which the islanders are fitted by their nature, ability, and instincts, and one more free, like the bird that leaves its cage, like the flower that unfolds to the air, will recover the pristine virtues that are gradually dying out and will again become addicted to peace cheerful, happy, joyous, hospitable and daring.

Rizal in Brussels
On January 28, 1890, Rizal went to Brussels, Belgium and left Paris. 2 Reasons: The high cost of living in Paris Difficulty in resisting the gay social life in Paris, which hinders Rizal from writing his second novel El Filibusterismo

In addition to the two reasons cited, Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Valentin Ventura believed that Rizal was running away from a girl in London (Gertrude Becket)
With Jose Albert/o as his companion, Rizal resided in a boarding house with address 38 Rue Philippe Champagne which was managed by Suzanne and Marie Jacoby. When Jose Albert/o left the city, Jose Alejandro, an engineering student, stayed together with our hero.

Rizal practiced his profession as a surgeon in order to meet up with the necessities he needed to live. As a recreation and to be in shape, he continued his gymnastics, fencing and target practice or shooting. In one of his letters to Antonio Luna, we wrote: I go to the clinic, I read, I write, I go to the gymnasium and to the armory. However, he spent most of his time writing El Filibusterismo, a continuation of the novel Noli Me Tangere and also writing for La Solidaridad.

Articles Written for the La Solidaridad

These were articles published in La Solidaridad in defense of the oppressed Filipinos written by Rizal when he was in Brussels


Date Published

Anti-Filipino writing of Patricio de la Escorura/Escosura (Spanish) Spanish accusations that the native local officials were ignorant, immoral and corrupt. Barrantes ignorance on the theatrical art of the Tagalog Denial of Christian burial to Mariano Herbosa

A La Defensa April 30, 1889 (To The Defense) La Verdad Para May 31, 1889 Todos (The Truth for All) Vicente June 15, 1889 Battantes Teatro Tagalo Una Profanacion July 31, 1889 (A Profanation)

Verdades Nuevas (New Truths)

July 31, 1889

Answer to the letter published by Vicente Belloc Sanchez in La Patria, alleging that the granting of reforms in the Philippines can redound to the detruction of the peaceful rule of the friars in the Philippines To defend Blumentritt from his enemies

Crueldad (Cruelty) Diferencias (Differences)

August 15, 1889

September 14, Biased article entitled Old 1889 Truths, published in La Patria, which mocked the Filipinos who were clamoring for reforms from Spain

Inconsequencias November 30, In defense of Antonio Lunas (Inconsequences) 1889 attacks of Pablo Mir Deas published in El Pueblo Soberano, a newspaper in Barcelona Llanto y Risas (Tears and Laughters)
Ingratitudes (Ingratitude)

November 30, Denunciation of the racial 1889 prejudice against the Filipinos
January 15, 1890 In response to what Governor-General Weyler told the people of Calamba that they should not be fooled by empty promises of their ungrateful sons

Criticism of Filipinos Passion for Gambling

Through Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura, Rizal came to know that his fellow expatriates in Madrid were so much engaged in gambling. He was asked by the two men to do something about it. In response, Rizal sent a letter to Marcelo del Pilar on May 28, 1890.

The gambling Filipinos in Madrid were angry when they learned of Rizals moralizing. They derisively called him Papa instead of Pepe.

Disturbing News from Home

Increase in RENT in Dominican Haciendas Forcible eviction of tenants Paciano Antonio Lopez Silvestre Ubaldo Manuel Hidalgo

Disturbing News from Home

A third to a half increase in rent Letter to F. Vicente Garcia Juan Mompeon, Governor of Calamba Steamship Brutus Luis Alabaa and Felipe Buencamino

The Premonition of Rizal

Letter to Marcelo H. Del Pilar dated June 11, 1890 Sad presentiments assault me though I do not give them entire credence. In my childhood I had a strange belief that I would not reach thirty years of age. ...

...although I do not believe in these things and although my body is very strong and I have no illness and have no fear. I am preparing myself for death and for any

eventuality, Laong Laan (ever ready), that is my true name.

I want to finish at all costs the second volume of the Noli and as much as possible I do not want to leave unfinished what nobody else could continue.

... Dont believe that I am depressed or sad; every two days I go to the gymnasium and practice fencing and shooting...

The Plan to Return to the Philippines

Rizal learned that Jaena was planning to go to Cuba.

Rizal to Ponce Instead of going to Cuba to catch yellow fever, he ought to go to the Philippines to allow himself to be killed in defense of his ideals; we have only once to die, and if we do not die well, we lose an opportunity which will not again be presented to us. He should go resolutely to defy danger, and if one does not escape the danger, at least he will be a martyr to his ideals. I am opposed to his going to Cuba: it is useless; Cuba is exhausted; it is a nutshell. If one has to die, let him at least die in his country, for his country, and in behalf of his country."

Graciano Lopez Jaena

Mariano Ponce

The Plan to Return to the Philippines

Rizal to Ponce dated July 18 1890: "I want to go back to the Philippines, and although I know it would be daring and imprudent, what does that matter? The Filipinos are all very prudent, and that is why our country is going the way she is. As it seems to me that we are not making any progress by following prudence, I am going to look for another pathway! The only thing that can detain me is a doubt whether my parents agree; I am afraid to disturb their last years; in case they object to my coming, I hope by working to gain a livelihood in some other part of the world."

All his friends in Europe were horrified of Rizals decision to return to the Philippines because they know that Rizal is a marked man

The Plan to Return to the Philippines

It was a letter from Paciano that made him forgo of his plans of coming back. The letter wrote that the case against the Dominicans was lost. It was however appealed to the Audiencia Real in Madrid. He contact Marcelo Del Pilar, a lawyer by profession, to handle the case with Pedro Serrano, who is good circumstances financially.

To my Muse
(translation by Charles Derbyshire) Invoked no longer is the Muse, The lyre is out of date; The poets it no longer use, And youth its inspiration now imbues With other form and state. If today our fancies aught Of verse would still require, Helicon's hill remains unsought; And without heed we but inquire, Why the coffee is not brought.

E'en sometimes I must weep; For he who love would keep Great pain has undergone. Fled are the days of ease, The days of Love's delight; When flowers still would please And give to suffering souls surcease From pain and sorrow's blight. One by one they have passed on, All I loved and moved among; Dead or married--from me gone, For all I place my heart upon By fate adverse are stung. Go thou, too, O Muse, depart, Other regions fairer find; For my land but offers art For the laurel, chains that bind, For a temple, prisons blind. But before thou leavest me, speak: Tell me with thy voice sublime, Thou couldst ever from me seek A song of sorrow for the weak, Defiance to the tyrant's crime.

In the place of thought sincere That our hearts may feel, We must seize a pen of steel, And with verse and line severe Fling abroad a jest and jeer.
Muse, that in the past inspired me, And with songs of love hast fired me; Go thou now to dull repose, For today in sordid prose I must earn the gold that hired me. Now must I ponder deep, Meditate, and struggle on;

To My Muse (A Mi Musa)

Resulted from his disenchantment over the lukewarm attitude of the Filipino expats in Spain working for reforms from the Spanish government Expressed Rizals bitterness over land troubles in Calamba

Affair with Suzanne Jacoby

Relative of his landladies in Belgium She fell in love with Rizal because of his charm and dignified manners Shed tears when Rizal left for Madrid to attend to his familys appeal to the Supreme Court in Madrid.