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Network and Systems Laboratory
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Big Picture
Physical
world
MSP430
Other
Systems or
ICs
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Sensors
A device that converts a physical phenomenon into an
electrical signal
Physical phenomenon
light, temperature, humidity, pressure, and etc.
Electrical signal
resistance, capacitance, current, voltage, and etc.
Maps a physical phenomenon change to a electrical
signal change
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Signal Path
Sensors
Signal Conditioning
(if necessary)
Convert to
voltage
Amplification
Filtering Light
Temperature
Acceleration
Humidity
Pressure
etc.
Resistance
Capacitance
Current
Voltage
etc.
Analog to
Digital
Conversion
(ADC)
10011101
Produce a
proper output
voltage level
Converts
voltage to
digital number
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Sensors We Have
Raw sensors
Produce raw electrical signal

Signal conditioned sensors
Have some signal conditioning circuit
Produce analog output
Mostly Voltage
Sometime Current



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Sensors We Have
Digitalized sensors
Have some signal conditioning circuit
Convert analog to digital internally
Provide digital output
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Our Focus
Sensors
Signal Conditioning
(if necessary)
Convert to
voltage
Amplification
Filtering Light
Temperature
Acceleration
Humidity
Pressure
etc.
Resistance
Capacitance
Current
Voltage
etc.
Analog to
Digital
Conversion
10011101
Produce a
proper output
voltage level
Converts
voltage to
digital number
Sensors
We are not going to talk about signal conditioning
You can find many sensors that are signal conditioned and
provide a proper analog output, or even digitalized
We will focus on how to understand these signal conditioned
sensors and get the output we want
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Some Raw Sensors
Temperature Sensors
Thermistors
Temperature-sensitive resistor
RTDs (resistive temperature devices)
Temperature-sensitive resistor
Thermocouples
Temperature => voltage (mV)
Pressure sensors
Piezoresistive
Resistance change with applied pressure

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Photodiodes
Light => current
Generate current proportional to light density

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Photodiodes
Two on Taroko
S1087: for visible range
S1087-01: for visible to IR(infrared) range

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Signal Conditioned Analog Output
Proximity sensor
Sharp GP2D120XJ00F
Analog voltage output
Accelerometer
ADXL330 3-axis accelerometer
Analog voltage output
Industry standard analog output
Flow sensors, pressure sensors, gas sensors, etc.
4~20 mA, 0~5 V, 0~10 V
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Proximity Sensor
Sharp GP2D120XJ00F
Output voltage proportional to
the reflection distance
Measure range: 30 cm
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Accelerometer
Analog Device Inc. ADXL330
Output voltage proportional to the acceleration
Measurement range: +/- 3.6 g
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Industry standard analog outputs
Many industrial instruments provide analog outputs
4~20 mA current loop
Most commonly used
The instrument produce a current, range from 4 mA to
20 mA
Physical measured quantity linearly maps to this
current range
Others
0 ~ 5 V
0 ~ 10 V
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4~20 mA current loop
Examples
Measure temperature: 0 ~ 100
o
C



Measure flow speed: 0 ~ 50 m
3
/h

Measurements
0
o
C
50
o
C
100
o
C

Current Output
4 mA
12 mA
20 mA

Measurements
0 m
3
/h
25 m
3
/h
50 m
3
/h

Current Output
4 mA
12 mA
20 mA

Usually this
range is user
configurable
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How to Convert to Voltage
Add a resistor
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Others Analog Output Sensors
Ultrasound sensors
http://www.baumerelectric.com/en/shop/catalog/Ultraschall_Sensoren/page3.html?filter=all&sort=Familie&dir=ascending



Gyroscopes
http://www.analog.com/en/subCat/0,2879,764%255F801%255F0%255F%255F0%255F,00.html

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Digitalized Sensors
Ultrasound sensors
SRF10
Interface: I2C

Temperature and Humidity Sensor
SHT11
Interface : manufacturer defined
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Digitalized Sensors
Magnetometer
SFE MicroMag 3-Axis
Interface : SPI
Applications: detecting vehicles
Digital compass
Hitachi HM55B
Interface : UART
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Digitalized Sensors
GPS
Garmin GPS18
Interface : UART


Image sensor
ST VS6451
Interface: I2C
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Understand The Analog Sensors
Most important goal
Obtain the relationship between voltage and the
physical phenomenon quantity you want to measure
Transfer function

Understand the characteristics and limitation of the
sensors

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Sensor Characteristics Definitions
Transfer Function
Relationship between physical quantity and output voltage
Sensitivity
Ratio of change between physical quantity and output voltage
Accuracy
Largest expected error
Linearity
How linear the transfer function is
Noise
In real world, signal are usually coupled with noise
Resolution
minimum detectable signal fluctuation
Bandwidth
response times to an instantaneous change in physical signal


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Transfer Function
Ratiometric?
Output voltage is a ratio
of supply voltage
ADXL330 accelerometer
From ADXL330 datasheet
It means when supply voltage Vs is 3 V, if the acceleration is
0 g, the output voltage will be 1.5 V (typical)
It means when supply voltage Vs is 3 V, if the acceleration
increase by 1 g, the output voltage will increase 330 mV (typical)
Transfer function: Voltage (V) = 1.5 + (0.3 * acceleration (g) )
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Transfer Function
Proximity sensor: Sharp GP2D120XJ00F
Transfer function
Voltage (V) = f(Distance (cm))
Not a linear function
Check datasheet
if the manufacturer has provided
Table mapping
Approximations
By a few straight lines
Curve fitting
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Transfer Function
Photodiode: S1087, S1087-01
From Taroko Schematic
Step 1: find the
relationship between
light level and current
Step 2: find the
relationship between
current and the
voltage at ADC4
(V = IR)
Transfer function
Voltage (V) = f(light level(lx))
Calculate by yourself
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Sensitivity
ADXL330 accelerometer



Sharp GP2D120XJ00F
Not a constanst

Photodiode: S1087, S1087-01
(Current)/(light level)
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Linearity
Photodiode: S1087, S1087-01
ADXL330 accelerometer
Sharp GP2D120XJ00F
GOOD
GOOD
BAD
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Bandwidth
How fast the next valid output ready
Proximity sensor: Sharp GP2D120XJ00F
ADXL330 accelerometer
When power up, you have to wait for
52.9ms to get a first valid output. You
have to wait another 47.9ms to get the
second one.
For the module we will use, the filter
capacitor is 0.1 uF. It means the
accelerometer module can have at most
50 different read-outs in one second
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Analog to Digital Conversion

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ADC takes two inputs
Voltage reference
Range of voltage that it can measure
It has a limited range
Sensor signal
Resolution
How many bits the ADC can output
Sample Rate
How many sample it can takes in one second
For MSP430F1611, it is about 200 ksps

Thats why we need signal
conditioning to produce a
proper voltage output
Analog to Digital Converter (ADC)
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Voltage reference
Input voltage compares to the voltage reference
Ratio of (input voltage)/(voltage reference) determines the output number
Two voltage references
Positive voltage reference (Vref+)
Negative voltage reference (Vref-)
In this figure, Vref+ =
1.6V; Vref- = 0 V
[0,0.1) V -> 0000
[0.8,0.9) V -> 1000
[1.5,1.6) V -> 1111

If we change the Vref+ =
3.2V; Vref- remains 0 V,
then
[0,0.2) V -> 0000
[1.6,1.8) V -> 1000
[3.0,3.2) V -> 1111

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About Voltage Reference
Voltage reference can by internal or external
Many ADCs have internal voltage reference integrated
Unstable Voltage reference will affect the accuracy of
the ADC
Minimum, Maximum
If input voltage > Vref+, always output 1111
If input voltage < Vref-, always output 0000
Voltage Reference cannot exceed power supply voltage

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Resolution
You heard 10-bit ADC, 12-bit ADC, 16-bit ADC
What are they?
Number of bits the ADC can output


This is a 4-bit ADC
[0,0.1) V -> 0000
[0.1,0.2) V -> 0001
[0.2,0.3) V -> 0010
[1.5,1.6) V -> 1111

If it is a 6-bit ADC
[0,0.025) V -> 000000
[0.025,0.05) V -> 000001
[0.05,0.075) V -> 000010
[1.575,1.6) V -> 111111

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Detectable Voltage Change
Voltage reference + Resolution
Define the detectable voltage change
Detectable voltage change = ((Vref+) (Vref-))/(2^resolution)
Examples
Vref = 1.6V, Resolution = 4-bit

Vref = 3.2V, Resolution = 4-bit

Vref = 1.6V, Resolution = 6-bit


1.6/(2^4) = 0.1 V
3.2/(2^4) = 0.2 V
1.6/(2^6) = 0.025 V
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Sample And Hold
There is a sample-and-hold circuit before
A/D conversion
Mostly integrated in the ADC chip
When no conversion, switch S1 is open
When a conversion start
S1 closed
Input signal charge C1
S1 open, C1 holds the value of input signal
A/D conversion
Sample-and-hold time
Time between S1 close and re-open
If it is too short
C1 will not fully charged (error)
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ADC Clock
ADC needs a clock
For sample-and-hold
and the A/D
conversion
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ADC on Taroko
12-bit on-chip ADC in MSP430
Voltage reference
Internal Vref: 1.5V, 2.5V
No external Vref on Taroko
User configurable combination for Vref+ and Vref-
Sample rate
Approximate 200 ksps
User configurable sample-and-hold time
User configurable clock sources
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An Example: ADXL330
ADXL330 3-axis accelerometer
Transfer function: V = 1.5 + (0.3 * g)
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An Example: ADXL330
Taroko ADC setting
Resolution: 12-bit
Voltage reference
Vref+ = 2.5 V
Vref- = 0 V
Conversion formula
N
ADC
is the output number

For our setting

(
(

=
+

ref ref
ref
bit n
ADC
V V
V Vin
N ) 1 2 (
(

=
(

=
5 . 2
) 4095 (
0 5 . 2
0
) 4095 (
Vin Vin
N
ADC
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An Example: ADXL330
Transfer function: V = 1.5 + (0.3 * g)
Conversion formula

When the acceleration is 0 g
V = 1.5
N
ADC
= 2457
When the acceleration is 1.5 g
V = 1.95
N
ADC
= 3194
When N
ADC
= 1784, what is the acceleration?

When N
ADC
= 2635, what is the acceleration?

(

=
(

=
5 . 2
) 4095 (
0 5 . 2
0
) 4095 (
Vin Vin
N
ADC
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Real World Design
In practical design, there are always errors
Noises
Power supply noise
Digital circuit noise
RF noise
Devices noise
Devices Tolerances
5% resistor, 1% resistor
10% capacitor
etc.
Temperature drift
Devices characteristics change when temperature change
Two very simple methods to deal with two very common
errors
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First Type of Errors
Noise
Dynamic
ADXL330 at 0 g (1.5V)
Sample at S1 -> ok
Sample at S2 -> it is 0.333 g
Sample at S3 -> it is -0.333 g
Solution
Average
(S1 + S2 + S3)/3 = (1.5+1.6+1.4)/3 = 1.5
1.5V
1.4V
1.6V
S1 S2
S3
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How Many Samples
How many samples needed to average
Depends on your requirement
Suggestion: factor of 2 (2
N
)
Take 10 samples and average


Take 16 samples and average
Total += Si; //(i=1,,10)
Result = Total/10;
Total += Si; //(i=1,,16)
Result = (Total>>4);
Division => slow
Bit shift => fast
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Cautions!
Is the Total large enough to hold the summation
Max possible Total = 4096*16 = 65536
Total should be at least 16-bit unsigned int
IMPORTANT!!
int in IAR for MSP430 is 16-bit long


Total += Si; //(i=1,,16)
Result = (Total>>4);
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Second Type of Errors
Offset
Static
For example: ADXL330
For A accelerometer, 0 g output maybe 1.5V
For B accelerometer, 0 g output maybe 1.54V

From ADXL330 datasheet
30% of ADXL330, 0 g
output is 1.53V
4% of ADXL330, 0 g
output is 1.5V
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Calibration
Maintain a calibration constant, adjust the offset error
ADXL330 with calibration
Transfer function: V = (1.5 + C
cal
) + (0.3 * g)
C
cal
is calibration constant
For A accelerometer, 0 g output is 1.5V
C
cal
= 0
If N
ADC
= 2879, acceleration should be 0.859 g
For B accelerometer, 0 g output is 1.54V
C
cal
= 0.04
If N
ADC
= 2879, acceleration should be ?? G


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Calibration Reference
Calibration needs a reference
Precision of the reference decide the precision of the
calibration
How do you calibrate the accelerometer ADXL330??



How do you calibrate a temperature sensor?

Acceleration => voltage
To calibrate, you want
to know the voltage
output at 0 g. But how
to make 0 g?
You must produce a precise 0 g (or 1 g) acceleration
Temperature => voltage
To calibrate, you want
to know the voltage
output at certain
temperature (25
o
C).
You must produce a precise temperature
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Digital Communications
Sending bits between each other


Serial communication
Sending bits one by one
UART, SPI, I2C, USB, etc.
Parallel communication
Sending multiple bits at one time
Ethernet
A B
10011101
A B
1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1
A B
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
Our focus
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Agreements
In order to communicate, two parties must at least agree
on:
Logic level
MSP430
RS232 (COM port)
Output data
Start, stop
Output data valid time (clock)


0V -> logic low (0)
3.3V -> logic high (1)
-12V -> logic high (0)
12V -> logic low (1)
What number it represent?
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Read
1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
2x Read
A B
For digital, wired
communication
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Protocols
Chips to Chips
SPI: Serial Peripheral Interface
I2C: Inter Integrated Circuit
Manufacturer defined
UART: Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
Systems to systems (usually)
Define logic level
RS-232: old traditional
RS-485: popular in industrial control system
Define output data
UART: Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
Define both
USB


A B
UART UART
RS232 or
RS485
RS232 or
RS485
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SPI
MasterSlave mode
Synchronous protocol
All transmissions are referenced to a common clock
Clock generated by the master (MCU)
Four main signals
Master Out Slave In (MOSI): data from master to slave
Master In Slave Out (MISO): data from slave to master
Serial CLocK (SCLK or SCK): clock
Chip Select (CS): select particular peripheral when multiple
peripherals are connected to master
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Read data at clock edge




Data Register Exchange
Master transfer a byte to slave, push slave to transfer a byte back to master
Master Read and Write
Simultaneously
Master write only
Ignore the byte it receive
Master read only
Master must transfer a dummy byte in order to initiate a slave transmission

SPI Transmission
MOSI
CLK
Slave read 1 1 1
1
0 0 0 0
MISO
CLK
Master read 1 0 0
0
1 1 0 1
CS
CS
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I
2
C
Two wires, multiple devices
SDA (serial data)
SCL (serial clock)
I
2
C transmission
START: SDA is pulled low while SCL stays high
Transfer:
SDA sets the transferred bit while SCL is low (blue)
data is read when SCL rises (green)
STOP: SDA is pulled high while SCL stays high

Pull-up
resistor
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I
2
C
Acknowledge (ACK) and Not Acknowledge (NACK)
Upon the transmission of the eighth data bit
Transmitter releases the SDA
Master then generates an additional clock pulse on SCL
Triggers the receiver to acknowledge the byte by pulling
SDA low
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I
2
C
Addressing
7-bit address
Direction bit
If 0: master write to slave
If 1: master read from slave
10-bit address

Clock stretching
A slave may hold the clock line (SCL) low after receiving
(or sending) a bit, indicating that it is not yet ready to
process more data
10-bit address
7-bit address
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Comparison
SPI I2C
Four wires Two wires
Full duplex Half duplex
Higher throughput (then I2C) Lower throughput
Synchronous protocol Synchronous protocol
No slave acknowledgment Acknowledgment
Simple Complicated
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Manufacturer Defined Protocols
The ideals are similar
Feed a clock
Start, stop
Read/write the data
Read datasheet
Many times
Get use to those timing diagrams
We will use the temperature/humidity sensor SHT11
on Taroko as an example
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Implementations
How to implement these protocols?
Hardware
There are SPI, I2C peripherals on MSP430F1611
You need to properly configure (setting registers) the modules
Software
Use GPIO
Generate clock
Read data: set the pin to input
Write data: set the pin to output
Things to consider
Timing: some devices cannot operate too fast
Check devices datasheet
// use P1.0 as clock pin
P1SEL &= ~(0x01); // GPIO
P1DIR |= 0x01; // output

// clock
P1OUT |= 0x01; // high
P1OUT &= ~(0x01); // low

// add some delay between clock
P1OUT |= 0x01; // high
(delay some time)
P1OUT &= ~(0x01); // low

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In General
You want to interface some digital ICs to MSP430
CC2420 radio chip (SPI)
8 Mbit flash memory (SPI)
SHT11 sensor (manufacturer defined, similar to I2C)
Typical process
1. How to interface?
Connections: two wires, three wires, four wires, etc.
2. How to communicate?
Available commands
Timing diagram: start, transfer, (ack), stop
3. How to configure the IC
Setting the registers on the IC
4. Start reading/writing data from/to the IC
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An Example: SHT11
The temperature/humidity sensor on Taroko
How to Interface
two wires bi-direction




SHT11 datasheet
1. Use a GPIO pin as clock (SCK),
it is always output direction
2. Use another GPIO as DATA,
dynamic setting it to
input(read) or output(write)
direction
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An Example: SHT11
How to start



What are the commands available

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An Example: SHT11
Timing diagram
Pull-up
Data pin in output
direction
Set data pin to input
direction, then SHT11
controls the DATA line
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An Example: SHT11
Configure device
If you dont
understand what
is the meaning,
check datasheet
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Timing
Check the timing
requirement carefully
The device wont work
at all if you exceed the
limit
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UART
UART: Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
Two wires: Rx, Tx
Full duplex
Asynchronous
No common clock required

Without common clock
How do they communicate??
A
Rx

Tx
B
Tx

Rx
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Universal data rates
Two devices agree on same data rate
Baudrate: 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, , (bits per second)

A
(1 MHz system clock)
B
(8 MHz system clock)

UART UART
Baudrate
generator
Baudrate
generator
9600 9600
Baudrate: 9600 bps
Length of a bit =
1/9600 (seconds)
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UART Data
Send one byte at a time
Data
One start bit
Pull-down the line
7 or 8 bits data
One or two stop bit
Pull-up the line for one or two slots
Simple error checking: parity (optional)
Even parity: If the data has odd number of 1, parity bit = 1 (make it
even); else parity bit = 0
Odd parity: If the data has even number of 1, parity bit = 1 (make it
odd); else parity bit = 0
Four parameters for UART communication
Baudrate, data-bit, parity, stop-bit
We wrote: 9600 8N1,
Means: baudrate=9600, 8-bit data, no parity, 1 stop bit

This bit became parity bit
when parity checking is
enabled
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RS232
Since the 1960s
Cable lengths of up to 25 meters
Signal level
logic high -> -5 to -15V (typically -12V)
logic low -> +15 and +1V (typically +12V)
Interface
Signal Function 25-pin 9-pin Direction
Tx Transmitted data 2 3 From DTE to DCE
Rx Received data 3 2 To DTE from DCE
RTS Request to send 4 7 From DTE to DCE
CTS Clear to send 5 8 To DTE from DCE
DTR Data terminal ready 20 4 From DTE to DCE
DSR Data set ready 6 6 To DTE from DCE
DCD Data carrier detect 8 1 To DTE from DCE
RI Ring indicator 22 9 To DTE from DCE
FG Frame ground (chassis) 1 - Common
SG Signal ground 7 5 Common
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RS485
Two-wire, half-duplex

Multipoint serial connection

Signal level
Difference between the wires voltages
A B > 0.2V => logic high (0)
A B < -0.2V => logic low (1)
Why it is popular in industrial applications
Only two wire
35 Mbit/s up to 10 m and 100 kbit/s at 1200 m
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USB Serial IC
Thats what we have on Taroko
FT232BL (www.ftdichip.com)
To communicate with PC
It simulate a serial communication on PC through USB
interface
Virtual com port

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Applications
MSP430
U
A
R
T

USB
serial IC
(FT232)
PC or
other
systems
RS232 IC
RS485 IC RS485 IC
Other
systems
C
O
M

P
O
R
T

U
S
B

All you need to do is properly configure
UART for both sides (baudrate, data-
bit, parity, stop-bit), and start
sending/receiving data