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Personality is defined as the enduring or lasting patterns of

behavior and thought (across time and situation).

It may also be describe as the characteristic patterns of

behaviour and thought that are a reflection of a consumers psychological systems.

A persons unique and relatively stable behavior

patterns. The consistency of who you are, have been, and will become. Character of the person. Temperament: Hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, moods, irritability, and adaptability.

Personality theories
The following are approaches to personality theory:

Psychoanalytical theory Social/environment theories Trait theory

Self concept theory

Based on the idea that adult behaviour is a reflection of childhood experiences. Sigmund Freud believed that unconscious thoughts controlled the conscious mind and this plays a significant role in devloping our personalities.

Five key stages of childhood development that Freud believed influenced personality development:

Freud proposed that personality is made up of three parts:

ID Made up of innate biological instincts and urges; self-serving, irrational, and totally unconscious. Works on Pleasure Principle: Wishes to have its desires satisfied now, without waiting and regardless of the consequences. Ex: Part of the iceberg that is submerged underwater. THE EGO Partially conscious and partially unconscious . Works on reality principle: Delays action until it is practical and/or appropriate Ex:Part of the iceberg that is above water and is aware of reality. SUPEREGO
This is third part of the personality representing internal representation of values,beliefs & morals of the society as learned by parents in childhood. Superego judges whether an action is right or wrong as per standards raised by the society. Ex:Part of the iceberg that is hust under the water but can sometime surface.

The social learning theory of personality consider human behaviour as an important behaviour. It focuses attention on the behaviour patterns and cognitive activities in relation to the specific conditions that evoke or modify them. This behaviour is emphasized by human behaviour in a particular situation. There are two ways of learning: 1) Through reinforcement and direct experience 2) Learning by observing others,vicarious learning.

Erik Erikson
Considered ego to be a major motivating force in human development and personality The stronger your self-identity, the more confident and assertive you are Implications for marketing are that people are more likely to buy brands that reflect their self image Alfred Adler Believed that people are born with an inbuilt sense of inferiority We strive for something better - express our superiority We are influenced by heredity, the environment and intrinsic factors

Trait theories of personality

A trait is a personality characteristic, e.g. outgoing or

Trait theories attempt to identify and categorise

personality characteristics
Marketers can use this information to identify

characteristics of a certain market segment

The big five personality traits

Openness to experience Interest in new things Conscientiousness How methodical you are Extroversion/introversion Degree of sociability Agreeableness Extent of a persons social likeability Neuroticism Perceived emotional stability

Self-concept theory
Based on the set of attitudes a person holds about

themselves and is made up of self-images and the evaluation of these image Self-concept is made up of two elements
Self-image Self-esteem Our self-concept can vary across situations

Self-image and buying behaviour

The different aspects of self-image that influence

buying behaviour include:

Real self

How we perceive ourselves

Ideal self

How we think we are perceived by others

How others see us

Social self

Consumers purchase products that reflect their sense

of self

Self-image and fashion

A consumers choice of fashion is a reflection of their

personality - it is an outward presentation of their self image

Highly materialistic consumers are more likely to

engage in indulgent purchasing behaviour

Their physical and material possessions convey status, success and prestige