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What are Communication Protocols? What is an IP address? Quick history of IP address. Brief comparison between IPv4 & IPv6. The Main Problem. Can IPv4 & IPv6 coexist? The Solution.

Communications Protocol
A description of a set of procedures to be followed when communicating is called a communication protocols" A communications protocol is a formal description of digital message formats and the rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems. Protocols may include signaling, authentication, error detection and correction capabilities.
-Protocols are to communications what algorithms are to computations -Protocols are to communications what grammar is to writing.

What is an Internet Protocol (IP) Address ?

Information cannot be sent without an address.

There needs to be an address established from where information is coming and where it is supposed to go.

An Internet protocol address is a unique identifying number that is assigned to each computer that is connected to the Internet. or

An example of IP Address

Types Of IP Addresses
Static IP Addresses
When a computer is programmed to use the same IP address by an administrator each time it is turned on, this is known as a static IP address.

Dynamic IP Addresses
When a computer is assigned an IP address automatically each time it connects to the Internet, this is known as a dynamic IP.

There are currently two versions of IP addresses in use:

IP version 4 IP version 6.
There are millions and millions of IPv4 addresses possible however, the explosion of the Internet in the 1990s has almost exhausted all IPv4 addresses, hence the creation of IPv6.


232 = 4.3 billion IPv4 addresses



2128 = 340 undecillion IPv6 addresses


Quick History of the Internet Protocol (IP)

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4, or just IP) First developed for the original Internet (ARPANET) in spring 1978 Deployed globally with growth of the Internet Total of 4 billion IP addresses available Well established and used by every ISP to connect customers to the Internet. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Design started in 1993 when IETF forecasts showed IPv4 depletion between 2010 and 2017 Completed, tested, and available for production since 1999 Total of 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 IP addresses available Used and managed similar to IPv4

About IPv4 and IPv6

IP version
Deployed Address Size Address Format Number of Addresses Examples of Prefix Notation

1981 32-bit number Dotted Decimal Notation: 232 = 4,294,967,296

1999 128-bit number Hexadecimal Notation: 2001:0DB8:0234:AB00: 0123:4567:8901:ABCD 2128 = 340,282,366,920,938,463, 463,374,607,431,768,211,456 2001:0DB8:0234:AB00: 0123:4567:8901:ABCD

Who allocates IP Addresses?

Who allocates IP Addresses


African Network Information Centre (AfriNIC) for Africa American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) for the United States, Canada, and several parts of the Caribbean region. Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre (APNIC) for Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and neighboring countries Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre (LACNIC) for Latin America and parts of the Caribbean region Rseaux IP Europens Network Coordination Centre (RIPE) for Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia


IPv4 Depletion Situation Report

Each RIR received its last IP block from IANA on 3 February 2011. The IANA free pool of IPv4 addresses has reached almost 0%.

While each RIR currently has IPv4 addresses to allocate, it is impossible to predict when each RIR will run out.

Why a New IP?

1991 ALE WG studied projections about address
consumption rate showed exhaustion by 2008.
Built on the experiences learned from IPv4 new features large address space

Available IPv4 Space in /8s

128-bit IPv6 Address


8 groups of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers separated by : Leading zeros can be removed

3FFE:85B:1F1F::A9:1234 :: = all zeros in one or more group of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers

IPv4 & IPv6 Coexistence

Today, the Internet is predominantly based on IPv4. For the foreseeable future, the Internet must run both IP versions (IPv4 & IPv6) at the same time. (When done on a single device, this is called the dual-stack approach.) Deployment is already underway. Today, there are organizations attempting to reach your mail, web, and application servers via IPv6...


IPv4 & IPv6 - The Bottom Line

Were running out of IPv4 address space. IPv6 must be adopted for continued Internet growth. We must maintain IPv4 and IPv6 simultaneously for many years.

IPv6 deployment has begun.