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Personality

Part 1 - Introduction & Determinants

Part 2 - Personality Traits Models Model1- MBTI Model2- Big Five Part 3 - Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB
Part 4 - Linking An Individuals Personality to the workplace

Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. Personality Traits Personality Determinants Enduring personal characteristics that describe Heredity / inheritance / Genetics an individuals behavior Environment which are exhibited in a Situation large number of situations.

Heredity Environment Situation

Personality: a persons internally based characteristic way of acting and thinking Character: Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated. Temperament: Hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, moods, irritability, and distractibility Personality Trait: Stable qualities that a person shows in most situations Personality Type: People who have several traits in common

1. Trait Theories 2. Psychoanalytic Theory 3. Social-Cognitive Theories 4. Humanistic Theories

Trait Theories: Attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior Psychoanalytical Theories: Focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles

Humanistic Theories: Focus on private, subjective experience and personal growth


Social-Cognitive Theories: Attribute difference in personality to socialization, expectations, and mental processes

Jungs Theory of Two Types


Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types: Introvert: Shy, self-centered person whose attention is focused inward Extrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward

Eysencks Three Factor Theory


Hans Eysenck, English psychologist, believed that there are three fundamental factors in personality: Introversion versus Extroversion Emotionally Stable versus Unstable (neurotic)

Impulse Control versus Psychotic

Psychoanalytic theory, as devised by Freud, attempts to explain personality on the basis of unconscious mental forces
Levels of consciousness: We are unaware of some aspects of our mental states Freud argued that personality is made up of multiple structures, some of which are unconscious Freud argued that as we have impulses that cause us anxiety; our personality develops defense mechanisms to protect against anxiety

The Id, Ego, and Superego


Id: Innate biological instincts and urges; self-serving & irrational Totally unconscious Works on Pleasure Principle: Wishes to have its desires (pleasurable) satisfied NOW, without waiting and regardless of the consequences

Ego: Executive; directs id energies Partially conscious and partially unconscious Works on Reality Principle: Delays action until it is practical and/or appropriate

The Id, Ego, and Superego, continued


Superego: Judge or censor for thoughts and actions of the ego
Superego comes from our parents or caregivers; guilt comes from the superego Two parts - Conscience: Reflects actions for which a person has been punished (e.g., what we shouldnt do or be) - Ego Ideal: Second part of the superego; reflects behavior ones parents approved of or rewarded (e.g., what we should do or be)

Levels of Awareness
Conscious: Everything you are aware of at a given moment
Preconscious: Material that can easily be brought into awareness

Unconscious: Holds repressed memories and emotions and the ids instinctual drives

Graphic: Levels of Awareness

Freudian Theory
Levels of consciousness
Conscious
What were aware of

Structures of Personality
Id
Operates according to the pleasure principle

Preconscious
Memories etc. that can be recalled

Ego
Operates according to the reality principle

Unconscious
Wishes, feelings, impulses that lies beyond awareness

Superego
Contains values and ideals

Self-system: the set of cognitive processes by which a person observes, evaluates, and regulates his/her behavior. Bandura proposed that what we think of as personality is a product of this self-system. Children observe behavior of models (such as parents) in their social environment. Particularly if they are reinforced, children will imitate these behaviors, incorporating them into personality. Bandura also proposed that people observe their own behavior and judge its effectiveness. Self-efficacy: a judgment of ones effectiveness in dealing with particular situations. Social-cognitive theories tend to be overly-mechanical. Overemphasizes environmental influences; gives little or no consideration to the possibility of innate personality differences or the effects of genetics. Does not recognize internal human qualities such as hope, aspiration, love, selfsacrifice

Humanistic personality psychoanalytic notions

theories

reject

Humanistic theories view each person as basically good and that people are striving for self-fulfillment Humanistic theory argues that people carry a perception of themselves and of the world The goal for a humanist is to develop/promote a positive self-concept

Humanistic Perspectives
Carl Rogers
We have needs for:
Self-consistency (absence of conflict between selfperceptions Congruence (consistency between self-perceptions and experience)

Inconsistency evokes anxiety and threat People with low self-esteem generally have poor congruence between their self-concepts and life experiences.

Humanistic Perspectives
Abraham Maslow emphasized the basic goodness of human nature and a natural tendency toward self-actualization.

Situation 1 :Suppose that you are new to the organisation, and not familiar to your colleague. You get a chance to interact with them in this party.
What will you do in this situation? a) You will take the initiative to talk b) Feel strange and nervous so will not talk with others c) You will wait for someone else to talk to you d) you will stand and smile to others.

Situation 2 :If you go in a shopping mall, and you like one t-shirt, what would be your action? a) You will immediately buy it b) You will take a trial before purchasing. c) You will match the price with your budget and if it matches than only you will purchase it. d) You will look out for the discount shceme

Situation 3 :If you are going for an important meeting . On the way to the office, you see an accident. How will you react in this situation?
a) You will take the victim to the hospital b)You will call the victims family member and inform about the accident and will go away from there. c) You will feel scared about it and will move away from there. d) Seeing such critical situation, you start crying up. e) You wont even notice about the accident.

Situation 4 :Teacher makes an announcement in the class that today she is going to take surprise presentation of the students for the topic already been explained by her in the previous lecture.
a) you will readily accept and will present only if mam will call you b) you will take the initiative and start presenting c) you will hide your face so that you are not being noticed d) you will ask for some time to get information organized and then will present. e) you will get annoyed of not being informed earlier.

Situation 5 :If girl is crossing the road, a group of boys starts harassing her by whistling or by passing comments or by making faces. If you are that girl how will you react t that time? a) you will go and slap that boy b) you will complaint to the police authority c) you wouldnt react and pass by d) you will call your brother or friend or boyfriend to threaten that group

Situation 6 :You have been given a group project. You have made a mistake in between and only you are aware of it. How will you react on it? a) You will confess that you have made the mistake.
b) You will hold someone else responsible for the mistake c) you will try to find out the solution for it. d) you will keep mum all through out the project.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


Type of Social Interaction Preference for Gathering Data Preference for Decision Making Style of Decision Making
Extrovert (E)
Introvert (I)

Sensing (S) Intuitive (N) Feeling (F) Thinking (T) Perceptive (P) Judgmental (J)

Extraversion
Interest Orientation

Introversion

Talkative, Sociable, Friendly,

Shy, Reserved, Quite,

Outspoken

Sensing
Perception

iNtuition

Organised, Practical, Focus Detail.

Less Regular, Unconscious, Focus Big Picture

Thinking
Judgment

Feeling

Reliability of logical order cause and effect,

Priorities based on personal importance and values,

Apathy

Sympathy

Judgment
Environment Orientation

Perception

Judging attitude Control of events and systematic planning

Spontaneity Curious, awaiting events and adapting to them, Flexible

ISTJ
Take Your Time and Do It Right

ISFJ

INFJ

INTJ
Competence + Independence = Perfection

On My Honor, to Catalyst for Do My Duty Positive Change

ISTP
Doing the Best I Can With What Ive Got

ISFP
Its the Thought That Counts

INFP
Still Waters Run Deep

INTP
Ingenious Problem Solvers

ESTP ESTJ
Taking Care of Business

ESFP ESFJ
What Can I Do For You?

ENFP
Anythings Possible

ENTP
Lifes Entrepreneurs

Lets Get Busy! Dont Worry, Be Happy

ENFJ
The Public Relations Specialist

ENTJ
Everythings Fine Im in Charge

Conscientiousness Extroversion Agreeableness

Emotional stability

Openness to Experiance

Extraversion

Agreeableness

The Big Five Personality Model

Conscientiousness

Emotional Stability

Openness to Experience

The Big Five Personality Dimensions


Extraversion: Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive

Agreeableness: Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted


Conscientiousness: Dependable, responsible, achievement oriented,
persistent

Emotional stability: Relaxed, secure, unworried Openness to experience: Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad
minded

Research finding: Conscientiousness is the best (but not a strong) predictor


of job performance

As per 11th Edition

Locus of Control

Self-Esteem

Machiavellian Personality

Other Key Personality Attributes

Self Monitoring

Risk Propensity

Proactive Personality

Type A Personality

As per 11th Edition

Locus of Control

Internal locus of control: belief that one controls key events and consequences in ones life.

External locus of control: Ones life outcomes attributed to environmental factors such as luck or fate.

As per 11th Edition

How to measure ones LoC?


Scoring and Interpretation for the I, P, and C Scales There are three separate scales use to measure ones locus of control: Internal Scale, Powerful Others Scale, and Chance Scale. There are eight items on each of the three scales, which are presented to the subject as one unified attitude scale of 24 items. The specific content areas mentioned in the items are counterbalanced so as to appear equally often for all three dimensions. To score each scale add up the points of the circled answers for the items appropriate for that scale. (The three scales are identified by the letters I, P, and C). Add to the sum +24. The possible range on each scale is from 0 to 48. Each subject receives three scores indicative of his or her locus of control on the three dimensions of I, P, and C. Empirically, a person could score high or low on all three dimensions.

Key Point
GIVE YOUR OPINION ON EVERY STATEMENT If you find that the numbers to be used in answering do not adequately reflect your own opinion, use the one that is closest to the way you feel. Read each statement carefully. Then indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree using the following responses:

If you agree strongly, respond +3 If you agree somewhat, respond +2 If you agree slightly, respond +1
If you disagree slightly, respond 1 If you disagree somewhat, respond 2 If you disagree strongly, respond 3
First impressions are usually best. Read each statement, decide if you agree or disagree and the strength of your opinion, and then respond accordingly.

Levenson Multidimensional LoC Inventory


1. (I) Whether or not I get to be a leader depends mostly on my ability. 2. (C) To a great extent my life is controlled by accidental happenings. 3. (P) I feel like what happens in my life is mostly determined by powerful people. 4. (I) Whether or not I get into a car accident depends mostly on how good a driver I am. 5. (I) When I make plans, I am almost certain to make them work. 6. (C) Often there is no chance of protecting my personal interests form bad luck happenings.

Levenson Multidimensional LoC Inventory


(contd)

7. (C) When I get what I want, it is usually because Im lucky. 8. (P) Although I might have good ability, I will not be given leadership responsibility without appealing to those positions of power. 9. (I) How many friends I have depends on how nice a person I am. 10. (C) I have often found that what is going to happen will happen. 11. (P) My life is chiefly controlled by powerful others. 12. (C) Whether or not I get into a car accident is mostly a matter of luck. 13. (P) People like myself have very little chance of protecting our personal interests when they conflict with those of strong pressure groups.

Levenson Multidimensional LoC Inventory


(contd)

14. (C) Its not always wise for me to plan too far ahead because many things turn out to be a matter of good or bad fortune. 15. (P) Getting what I want requires pleasing those people above me. 16. (C) Whether or not I get to be a leader depends on whether Im lucky enough to be in the right place at the right time. 17. (P) If important people were to decide they didnt like me, I probably wouldnt make many friends. 18. (I) I can pretty much determine what will happen in my life.

Levenson Multidimensional LoC Inventory


(contd)

19. (I) I am usually able to protect my personal interests. 20. (P) Whether or not I get into a car accident depends mostly on the other driver. 21. (I) When I get what I want, its usually because I worked hard for it. 22. (P) In order to have my plans work, I make sure that they fit in with the desires of people who have power over me. 23. (I) My life is determined by my own actions. 24. (C) Its chiefly a matter of fate whether or not I have a few friends or many friends.

EXTERNALS

INTERNALS

Relationship Between LOC & some other factors


Job Satisfaction

LOC

Absenteeism

Turnover

FACTORS

INTERNALS
Satisfied

EXTERNALS
More dissatisfied

Job Satisfaction

Absenteeism

Less absenteeism Depends on their luck or chance No clear relationship Depends on their luck or chance

Turnover

As per 11th Edition

COMPARISION BETWEEN INTERNALS & EXTERNALS


INTERNALS Better job performance Attempt to control their environment Good decision maker Sophisticated task EXTERNALS More compliant Follow direction Structured jobs Routine jobs

Professional jobs
Managerial jobs
As per 11th Edition

Named after Niccolo Machiavelli Characteristics: Pragmatic Maintain emotional distance Believe that ends can justify the means

As 11th per Edition

Machiavellianism
Machiavellianism (Mach) A person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. The concept is named after renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolo Machiavellim who wrote IL Principe (i.e. The Price)

Conditions Favoring High Machs Direct interaction Minimal rules and regulations Emotions distract for others

MACH-IV Test
To what extent do each of the following statements accurately describe you? Please indicate the degree to which you personally agree or disagree with each of the following statements by choosing a number from the scale below that reflects your opinion. 1=strongly disagree, 2=disagree, 3=neutral, 4=agree, 5=strongly agree 1) Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to do so. 2) The best way to handle people is to tell them what they want to hear. 3) One should take action only when sure it is morally right. 4) Most people are basically good and kind.

MACH-IV Test (contd)


5) It is safest to assume that all people have a vicious streak and it will come out when they are given a chance. 6) Honesty is the best policy in all cases. 7) There is no excuse for lying to someone else. 8) Generally speaking, people won't work hard unless they're forced to do so. 9) All in all, it is better to be humble and honest than to be important and dishonest. 10) When you ask someone to do something for you, it is best to give the real reasons for wanting it rather than giving reasons which carry more weight.

MACH-IV Test (contd)


11) Most people who get ahead in the world lead clean, moral lives.

12) Anyone who completely trusts anyone else is asking for trouble.
13) The biggest difference between most criminals and other people is that the criminals are stupid enough to get caught. 14) Most people are brave. 15) It is wise to flatter important people.

16) It is possible to be good in all respects.


17) P.T. Barnum was wrong when he said that there's a sucker born every minute.

MACH-IV Test (contd)


18) It is hard to get ahead without cutting corners here and there. 19) People suffering from incurable diseases should have the choice of being put painlessly to death. 20) Most people forget more easily the death of their parents than the loss of their property.

High Machs
Manipulate more Win more Persuaded less Persuade others more

High Machs persuaded by :Persuaded by 3 factors 1. Face-to-face interaction 2. Situation having minimum number of rules & regulations ,allowing latitude for improvisation 3. Emotional involvement with details irrelevant

Job suitability
For High Machs Job requiring bargaining skills (such as labor negotiation) Or that offer substantial rewards for winning (as commissioned sales)

Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring


Self-Esteem (SE) Individuals degree of liking or disliking themselves. Self-Monitoring

A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.

Personality Types
Type As 1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; 2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; 3. strive to think or do two or more things at once; 4. cannot cope with leisure time; 5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type Bs 1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; 2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; 3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; 4. can relax without guilt.

Self Esteem

1. 2.

The degree to which a person likes or dislikes himself


It is directly related to expectations for success Two types:High Self Esteem Low self Esteem

High Self Esteem They believe that they possess the ability they need to succeed at work Will take more risks in job selection And more likely to choose unconventional jobs than people with low self esteem They will not be susceptible to the external influences They are more satisfied with their job

Low Self Esteem


They seek appreciation from others Seek approval from others and try to conform to the beliefs and behaviours of those they respect They try to please others and therefore they would not take unpopular stands than are high SEs

Self-Monitoring
Ability to adjust ones behavior to external, situational factors

High self monitoring


Capable of presenting striking contradictions between their public persona & private self Tend to pay closer attention to behaviour of others & more capable of conforming than low self monitoring Capable of putting different faces for different audiences