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Equal Employment Opportunity


Almost every organization, public and private, must abide by

the Civil Rights Act its amendment Labor Laws Labor Regulations

other federal laws regulating employment

Laws Affecting Discriminatory Practices

The Pregnancy Discrimination Act
Companies may not
fire a female employee for being pregnant refuse positive treatment based on pregnancy deny insurance coverage to women

Companies must
offer pregnancy leave (typically 6-10 weeks) offer returning employee a similar job should the exact one be unavailable upon return

Laws Affecting Discriminatory Practices

Disabilities Act
extends protection and reasonable accommodations to those with a disability
defines disabled as a person who:
1. has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more life activities 2. has a history or record of such impairment 3. is perceived by others as having such impairment

Covers not only those with mobility and communication disabilities, but those with HIV/AIDS and intellectual disabilities.

Laws Affecting Discriminatory Practices

Medical Leave Act
. Leave: The public holidays, sick leave, annual leave, maternity leave, special leave, leave with or without remuneration etc. to be enjoyed by the workers and employees of each enterprise shall be as prescribed. 6*4o

Relevant Supreme Court Cases

HRM practices can be challenged by anyone, and HRM must be able to defend its practices.

Issues in Employment Law

EEOC: Instances where verbal or physical conduct creates:

sexual harassment

an intimidating, offensive, or hostile environment

unreasonably interferes with an individuals work adversely affects an employees employment opportunities Glass ceiling - lack of women and minority representation at the top levels of organizations

comparable worth

OFCCP has glass ceiling initiative promotes career development for women and minorities looks for such in its audits

HRM in a Global Environment

Laws affecting HRM vary greatly by country.
China 60/100-hour work-weeks not uncommon. Chinas recent labor laws seek to protect employees from such practices Canadian laws closely parallel those in the U.S.



In Mexico, employees more likely to be unionized


Australias discrimination laws not enacted until the 1980s Representative participation (work councils and board representatives) put labor on par with management and stockholders


Employee Rights
and Discipline


employee rights have become one of the more important human resource issues the U.S. Constitution, laws, and Supreme Court rulings have increasingly constrained employer actions Nepal: Rare case where employer has won a case against employee

Current Issues in Employee Rights

Employee Monitoring and Workplace Security
Company interests are protected against
theft revealing of trade secrets to competitors using the customer database for personal gain lost productivity

HRM policies must be clear on monitoring

e-mail the Internet phone

How to balance security with employees rights? That is the question!

Current Issues in Employee Rights

Employee Monitoring and Workplace Security
Monitoring could extend to cyber places such as:

See Twitter with Care from SHRM gy/Articles/Pages/TwitterCarefully.aspx

Technology has blurred the line between public and private.

Current Issues in Employee Rights

Workplace Romance
try to prevent employee romance because of potential discrimination or sexual harassment issues can issue fraternization policies and guidelines on how relationships at work may exist may ask parties to sign a consensual contract

HRM concerns: favoritism charges, ethics breeches, low productivity, even workplace violence

The Employment-at-Will Doctrine

Employment-at-Will Doctrine
Allows dismissal of employees at any time for any reason except race, religion, sex, national origin, age, or disability.

Exceptions to the doctrine:

1. contractual relationship: a legal agreement exists defining how employee issues are handled

2. statutory considerations: federal and/or state laws can create exceptions

The Employment-at-Will Doctrine

Employment-at-Will Doctrine
Exceptions to the doctrine:
3. Public policy violation: Employees cannot be fired for disobeying an illegal order from the employer 4. Implied employment contract: any promise or guarantee about job security, verbal or written. 5. Breach of good faith: An employer breaches a promise or abuses its managerial powers.

Discipline and Employee Rights

A condition where employees conduct themselves in accordance with the organizations rules and standards of acceptable behavior.
HR managers should first consider: seriousness of the problem duration of the problem frequency and nature of the problem extenuating factors degree of socialization history of organizations discipline practices management backing

Discipline and Employee Rights

The most frequent violations requiring disciplinary action


dishonesty outside activities

Job behaviors

51. Misconduct:
(a) in case of causing any bodily injury or keeping in fetters, detaining to the Establishment, Manager or employee with or without use of arms or causing any turbulence or destruction or assault within the enterprise in connection with the labour dispute or on any other matter; (b) in case of creating or causing to create any stir within the enterprise affecting the production process or service works of the enterprise, or obstructing the supply of food and water, or disconnecting the line of telephone and electricity, or obstructing movement within the enterprise; (c) in case of stealing any property of the Enterprises (c1) in case the business transaction of the enterprise is misappropriated; (c2) in case for more than thirty consecutive days is being absented (d) in case bribe is offered or accepted; (e) in case of being imprisoned on being convicted on a criminal offence involving moral turpitude; (f) in case of participating or compelling others to participate in any strike declared as illegal or irregular; (g) in case of participating in strikes without fulfilling the legal requirements or knowingly going slow in works against interests of the enterprise; (h) in ease of destroying any property of the enterprise, or causing damage thereto or taking and using it outside the enterprise or giving for use to unauthorized person without permission of the competent authority; (i) in case of frequently violating knowingly the orders or directives issued under this Act or the rules made hereunder, or the bye-laws made by the enterprise, or misbehaves with the customers of the enterprise; (j) in ease of frequently remaining absent from the work without obtaining permission or coming late after the regular time; * (k) in case it is provided by the doctor of the fact of coming to the duty ********* (l) in case of doing any activity to breach secrecy relating to special technology or production formula of the enterprise with a motive of causing damage to the enterprise whereon himself/herself is working

(1) Any worker or employee, who does any act of misconduct as mentioned in clauses (i), (j) or (m) of Section 51 may be punished by reprimanding. (2) One who does any act of misconduct as mentioned in clauses (c1), (f), (g) or (h) of Section 51, may be punished by withholding the annual increment. (3) One who does any act of misconduct as mentioned in clause (b), (d) or (k) of Section 51, may be suspended for up to three months. (4) One who does any act of misconduct as mentioned in clauses (a), (c), (c2), (e) or (l) of Section 51 may be dismissed from service. (5) In case any worker or employee having been punished twice for any act of misconduct under sub-sections (1), (2) or (3) again does the same act of misconduct he may be dismissed from service. # Provided that, the punishment awarded under sub-section (1) shall not be counted after expiring of three years from the date of awarding the punishment. # (6) It shall not be deemed to have impediment made by the provision of this Section to the Establishment to award lighter punishment than the prescribed punishment.

53. Procedures:
* (1) Before awarding any punishment under Section 52, any permanent worker or employee shall be served a notice mentioning the facts of the misconduct committed by him and the type of punishment that may be awarded to him if proven, together with an opportunity to submit his explanation within seven days. Provided that, any action shall not be taken regarding such misconduct after expiry of two months from the date of commitment of such misconduct. * (2) In case the worker or employee does not submit his explanation within the period as specified under sub-section (1) or if the explanation submitted by him is not found satisfactory, he may be punished according to Section 52 for the offense of misconduct. Provided that, while making decision regarding such punishment, it should be done within two months from the date of service of notice demanding explanation. (3) In case the concerned worker or employee refuses to take the notice served pursuant to sub-section (1) or remains absent, the notice shall be sent by registered post at his address and a copy of such notice shall be displayed in the public notice board of the enterprise, and a recognizance regarding service of notice by displaying in the notice board shall be executed in witnesses of at least three persons and a copy of such notice shall also be sent to the concerned Labour Office and thereafter, it shall be deemed that such notice was duly served to the concerned worker or employee.

Discipline and Employee Rights

Even tardiness can lead to disciplinary action.
Real peoples real reasons for being late to work:
My heat was shut off so I had to stay home to keep my snake warm. My husband thinks its funny to hide my car keys before he goes to work.

My father didnt wake me up.

My bike tire went flat after a groundhog bit it. A gurney fell out of an ambulance and delayed traffic. I feel as if Im in everyones way if I show up on time.

Discipline and Employee Rights

Disciplinary Guidelines
make disciplinary action corrective rather than punitive
use a progressive approach (verbal warning, written warning, suspension, dismissal) follow the Hot-Stove rule: give an immediate response give ample warning be consistent be impersonal Allow employees to have a representative present for disciplinary meetings.

Discipline and Employee Rights

Disciplinary Actions
written/verbal warning

written warning



Discipline and Employee Rights

When firing an employee:
1. review all facts 2. set the stage 3. be very clear 4. allow a little dignity 5. let the employee talk 6. give severance pay 7. sign waiver of right to sue 8. pay for earned time 9. have person leave that day 10. inform person of benefits 11. take protective steps (change passwords, etc.) 12. inform staff of firing