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Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

Manufacturing of Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM)

PVC Morphology

Suspension and Mass 100-180m Emulsion 5-50m

Suspension polymerization of PVC

Typical primary and secondary protective colloids used in suspension polymerization of VCM

Effect of the degree of hydrolysis of poly(vinyl acetate) on grain porosity

Initiator for suspension and mass polymerization of VCM

Diacyl peroxides Peroxydicarbonates Alkyl Peroxyesters Azo initiators

Porosity in PVC

General properties of PVC

Properties of PVC

Properties of PVC

Grades of PVC
Unmodified grade Moulding grade Extrusion grade Impact modified grade Plasticised grade Flame retardant grade

PVC Processing techniques

Injection moulding Extrusion Calendering Stretch blow moulding Rotational moulding Coating Thermoforming

Manufacturers of PVC

Agriculture: Drip irrigation systems, pipe fittings, reservoir liners, irrigation pipes & profiles, drainage installations, horticulture & green house irrigation system and sprinkler system fittings.


Household: Bottles, foams, leather cloth, novelties,calenders, office files & folders, purses & wallets, book & diary covers, pass book & pass port covers, tool kit covers, washing machines, cameras, records & radio, photo albums, caps, coats, umbrella covers & handles, sport shoes & shoe soles, boxes for dry fruits, gifts, audio & video, inflatable toy animals and balls.


Film, fittings, profiles, printing inks, conveyor belting, battery seperators, storage tanks, work gloves,printing plates, screens, protective coatings hammer heads and steel strip coatings


Glucose bag, urine bag, infusion set, tubings and catheter tubes

Medical products


Cable insulation

Cable insulation, pipes & profiles, wire extrusions, TV back, radio parts, business machine parts, office equipments, wire & cable fittings, wire racks, electrical parts, plating racks, tool handles an electrical insulation.


swimming pool liners, coated metal components, fencing, floor Covering, wall coverings, carpet backing, floor tiles, foil coatings, heat seal adhesives, coatings, toilet boxes, sofa sets, furniture covers, house sidings, windows, doors, bathroom equipments and cabinets.


Seat belts, head rests, arm rests, spark plug covers, air filters, boat bumpers, mats, mud flaps, bicycle seats, transmission covers, car, scooter and cycle seat covers.

Marine: Ships, life jackets, life vests, deep sea . diving equipment and boat parts Miscellaneous'. Air bags, hand bags and shopping bags, refrigerator components, furniture, wheels, golf bags, swim fins, table cloths, closet accessories, shower curtains, garden hose, baby pants, rain wear, disposal stoppers, bottle cap liners, traffic safety covers, athletic padding, life preservers apparel fabrics, roll coating, fire ring mains, brushes & brooms, floor coverings, files & folders, yarn for lawn furniture and animal ear tags


Most widely used are C4C12 esters such as phthalates, adipates,azelates, sebacates, trimellitates, and phosphates. Chlorinated paraffins are used as secondary plasticizers. A good plasticizer should have low volatility, low color value, neutral reaction, resistance to hydrolysis, insolubility in water, flame resistance, and nontoxicity.

Influence of plasticizers on final product properties

Influence of Plasticizers on Plastisol Properties


Effect of shear rate on the PVC plastisol viscosity (DOP/PVC = 100/50 at T = 25OC

Factors affecting the rhelology of PVC plastisol

Polymer/plasticizer mixing ratio Type of plasticizer and its interaction with polymer Particle size and their distribution of primary particles Structure, shape, porosity, and surface of the secondary particles Surfactants, added during polymerization or in the paste Molecular mass and molecular mass distribution Paste-making conditions such as mixing temperature, time, and intensity

Changes in Morphology and mechanical properties of PVC plastisol during gelation and fusion

Fikentscher K-value

Molecular weight characteristic of PVC

Grades Nomenclature

SK 68/173 Suspension grade PVC with K value 68 and viscosity no 173 VY 110/57 PVC with K value 57 and viscosity no 110

K value

PVC with K = 6668 can be processed in rigid formulations to give pipes,conduit, sheet, and window profiles K = 6571 in flexible formulations for flexible sheet, flooring, wallpapers, cable coverings, hoses, tubing, and medical products low K-values (5560) in formulations for injection molding of pipe and conduit fittings, integral electrical plugs, and blow molding of bottles and other containers.

Compounding ingredients

Polymer Stabilisers Plasticisers Extenders Lubricants Fillers Pigments Polymeric processing aids Impact modifiers

Factors affecting the choice of Stabilizer

The grade of polymer used. The nature of other ingredients present. The cost of stabilizer required to give adequate stabilization for the processing and anticipated service life of the compound The clarity required of the compound. Toxicity. The effect on lubrication, printing, heat sealing and plate-out.

Heat stabilizers for PVC

Lead compounds

basic lead carbonate (white lead) Low cost Disadv decomposes at higher temp giving porous product tribasic lead sulphate : better electrical
insulation properties

dibasic lead phthalate,Lead silicate, dibasic lead stearate

Metallic soaps or salts

Metal stearates, ricinoleates, palmitates and octoates cadmium-barium systems

strontium/zinc Calcium/zinc

Organo-tin compounds

Dibutyltin maleate dibutyltin di-iso-octylthioglycollate,

Requirements of plasticizers

It should have a molecular weight of at least 300. It should have a similar solubility parameter to that of the polymer. If the polymer has any tendency to crystallise, it should be capable of some It should not be a crystalline solid at the ambient temperature unless it is specific interaction with the polymer. capable of specific interaction with the polymer.

Common plasticizers for PVC


Chlorinated paraffin waxes. Chlorinated liquid paraffinic fractions. Oil extracts. If too little is used sticking problems occur; if too much the compound may develop haze and greasiness, printing and heat sealing may be difficult and gelation and fusion of the compound may be slowed down


Calcium stearate Dibasic lead stearate Stearic acid Normal lead stearate

Internal lubricants

improve the flow of the melt, reasonably compatible with the polymer do not retard gelation, cause haze or cause greasiness wax derivatives, particularly from montan wax, glyceryl esters, particularly glyceryl monostearate, and long chain esters such as cetyl palmitate.

General purpose insulation compound

Transperant Calendering compound