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The Ethiopian Education Sector By Tayachew Ayalew

Overview
National Development Direction Agricultural Development Led Industrialization-ADLI Inline with the MDGs and EFA Goals Sustainable development and poverty reduction program/SDPRP Plan for accelerated and sustained development to end poverty /PASDEP Growth and transformation plan/GTP( current national development direction) At the heart of the development direction Poverty reduction and Transforming Ethiopia in to a Middle Income Economy by 2020-2023(GTP)

Overview/contd
The education sector At the centre of the development direction: skilled human resource devt and improved investment in accumulated human and social capital Implementation of current education and training policy/ETP -1994 Critical challenges addressed: Access equity relevance efficiency quality

Overview/ Critical challenges contd


curricula, measurement, assessment and evaluation teacher development media of instruction education,training,research and development education support inputs educational finance educational organization and management

Overview/contd
Structure of the education system Three sub-sectors General Education Preprimary to grade 12 Technical vocational education and training/TVET Higher education ETP implementation program action plans/Education sector development programs/ESDPs Three ESDPs( ESDPI-III) completed so far as parts of SDPRP and PASDEP ESDP IV under way as part of the GTP

Overview/contd
o o o o o The General education sub-sector The basis for broad based ADLI, and the bridge for TVET and HE Feeds about 80% to TVET and 20% to HE at the end of G10 Structure of general education Eight years of primary education restructured as: Four years of primary first cycle-grades 1-4 Four years of primary second cycle-grads 5-8 Including pre-primary/kindergarten education(2-3 years) Four years of secondary education restructured as: Two years of general secondary education-grades 9-10 Two years of preparatory secondary education-grades11-12

Overview/Gen.Education
Achievements so far General Education Primary education(G1-8) Enrolment: 3.1 million in 1997 to 16.7million in 2010/11 with: GER of 30% in 1997 to 96.4% in 2010/11 NER of 36% in 2000 to 85.3% in 2010/11 With a GPI of 0.93( 93 girls for every 100 boys)

Overview/Gen.Education
Secondary education( G9-12) By 1997 GER of G9-12 was only 8.4 % Since the implementation of the ETP GER of general secondary( G9-10) has reached 38.4% in 2010/11 Enrolment in Preparatory secondary Education (Grades 11-12) has reached 288,216 by 2010/11

Challenges in General Education


Quality Equity and access Gender Regional Internal efficiency Dropout Repetition Management capacity

Overview/contd
Technical vocational education and training/TVET For producing middle level skilled human power 80% of grade 10 completers Admission has grown to 371,347( both Govt and NGovt) in 2010/11 from 25,000 in 2000/2001

Overview/contd
Higher education/HE For producing highly skilled human power 20% of grade 10 completers go to prep. Students who successfully complete the two year preparatory secondary education program Admission to universities as per the 70:30 ratio 70% of G12 successful completers go to natural sciences, engineering and technology 30% of G12 successful completers join the humanities and social studies Admission to regular undergraduate program( Govt): 211,197 in 2010/11 from 13000 in 2000/2001 Admission to graduate program (Govt):19,275 in 2010/11 from 900 in 2000/2001 Number of Govt (public) universities: currently 31 from 2

Priority Action Programs for the education sector under the GTP/ESDP IV

Quality and internal efficiency: ensuring student completion and achievement


Strengthening the focus on sciences and technology in line with the 70:30 university admission and HE strategy

Priority Action Programs/contd


Improving equity in access: reaching the marginalized and un reached Expanding adult education (with specific attention to functional adult literacy) Improving management capacities

General Education Quality Improvement Program/GEQIP


Entirely committed to improve the quality of general education Implementation: 2009-2013/14 World Bank funding (pool funding mechanism) Components of GEQIP Curriculum, textbook, assessment and examination Teachers and leaders development program School improvement program Management and administration program Coordination, monitoring and evaluation

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