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The Ethiopian Education Sector By Tayachew Ayalew

National Development Direction Agricultural Development Led Industrialization-ADLI Inline with the MDGs and EFA Goals Sustainable development and poverty reduction program/SDPRP Plan for accelerated and sustained development to end poverty /PASDEP Growth and transformation plan/GTP( current national development direction) At the heart of the development direction Poverty reduction and Transforming Ethiopia in to a Middle Income Economy by 2020-2023(GTP)

The education sector At the centre of the development direction: skilled human resource devt and improved investment in accumulated human and social capital Implementation of current education and training policy/ETP -1994 Critical challenges addressed: Access equity relevance efficiency quality

Overview/ Critical challenges contd

curricula, measurement, assessment and evaluation teacher development media of instruction education,training,research and development education support inputs educational finance educational organization and management

Structure of the education system Three sub-sectors General Education Preprimary to grade 12 Technical vocational education and training/TVET Higher education ETP implementation program action plans/Education sector development programs/ESDPs Three ESDPs( ESDPI-III) completed so far as parts of SDPRP and PASDEP ESDP IV under way as part of the GTP

o o o o o The General education sub-sector The basis for broad based ADLI, and the bridge for TVET and HE Feeds about 80% to TVET and 20% to HE at the end of G10 Structure of general education Eight years of primary education restructured as: Four years of primary first cycle-grades 1-4 Four years of primary second cycle-grads 5-8 Including pre-primary/kindergarten education(2-3 years) Four years of secondary education restructured as: Two years of general secondary education-grades 9-10 Two years of preparatory secondary education-grades11-12

Achievements so far General Education Primary education(G1-8) Enrolment: 3.1 million in 1997 to 16.7million in 2010/11 with: GER of 30% in 1997 to 96.4% in 2010/11 NER of 36% in 2000 to 85.3% in 2010/11 With a GPI of 0.93( 93 girls for every 100 boys)

Secondary education( G9-12) By 1997 GER of G9-12 was only 8.4 % Since the implementation of the ETP GER of general secondary( G9-10) has reached 38.4% in 2010/11 Enrolment in Preparatory secondary Education (Grades 11-12) has reached 288,216 by 2010/11

Challenges in General Education

Quality Equity and access Gender Regional Internal efficiency Dropout Repetition Management capacity

Technical vocational education and training/TVET For producing middle level skilled human power 80% of grade 10 completers Admission has grown to 371,347( both Govt and NGovt) in 2010/11 from 25,000 in 2000/2001

Higher education/HE For producing highly skilled human power 20% of grade 10 completers go to prep. Students who successfully complete the two year preparatory secondary education program Admission to universities as per the 70:30 ratio 70% of G12 successful completers go to natural sciences, engineering and technology 30% of G12 successful completers join the humanities and social studies Admission to regular undergraduate program( Govt): 211,197 in 2010/11 from 13000 in 2000/2001 Admission to graduate program (Govt):19,275 in 2010/11 from 900 in 2000/2001 Number of Govt (public) universities: currently 31 from 2

Priority Action Programs for the education sector under the GTP/ESDP IV

Quality and internal efficiency: ensuring student completion and achievement

Strengthening the focus on sciences and technology in line with the 70:30 university admission and HE strategy

Priority Action Programs/contd

Improving equity in access: reaching the marginalized and un reached Expanding adult education (with specific attention to functional adult literacy) Improving management capacities

General Education Quality Improvement Program/GEQIP

Entirely committed to improve the quality of general education Implementation: 2009-2013/14 World Bank funding (pool funding mechanism) Components of GEQIP Curriculum, textbook, assessment and examination Teachers and leaders development program School improvement program Management and administration program Coordination, monitoring and evaluation

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