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# BJT Small-Signal Analysis

Contents
Common-Emitter fixed-bias configuration
Voltage divider bias
CE Emitter bias
Emitter-follower configuration
Common-base configuration
Collector-feedback configuration
Hybrid equivalent circuit and model

r
e
transistor model employs a diode and controlled
current source to duplicate the behavior of a transistor in
the region of interest.
The r
e
and hybrid models will be used to analyze small-
signal AC analysis of standard transistor network
configurations.
Ex: Common-base, common-emitter and common-collector
configurations.
The network analyzed represent the majority of those
appearing in practice today.
BJT Small Signal Analysis
AC equivalent of a network is obtained by:
1. Setting all DC sources to zero
2. Replacing all capacitors by s/c equiv.
3. Redraw the network in more convenient and
logical form
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
The input (Vi) is applied to the base and the output (Vo) is from the collector.

The Common-Emitter is characterized as having high input impedance and low output
impedance with a high voltage and current gain.

Removing DC effects of VCC and Capacitors
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
re Model
Determine |, re, and ro:
| and ro: look in the specification sheet for the transistor or test the transistor using a
curve tracer.
re: calculate re using dc analysis:
E
e
I
26mV
r =
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
Impedance Calculations
Input Impedance: Output Impedance:

e B i
r || R Z | =
e B

e i
r 10 R
r Z
|
|
>
~
O
r || R Z
C o
=
c

o
10 ro
Z
R
R
c
>
~
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration

Gain Calculations
Voltage Gain (Av):

Current Gain (Ai):

Current Gain from Voltage Gain:

e
o C
i
o
v
r
) r || (R
V
V
A = =
C o
e
C
v
10R r
r
R
A
>
=
) r )(R R (r
r R
I
I
A
e B C o
o B
i
o
i
|
|
+ +
= =
e B C o
i
r 10 R , 10R r
A
|
|
> >
~
C
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
Voltage Gain
e
C
v C o
e
o C
e b
o C b
v
e b i
o C b O
i
O
v
r
R
A 10R or r if
r
) r || (R
-
r I
) r || (R I
A
r I V
) r || (R I V
V
V
A
= > O =
=

=
=
=
=
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
Current gain
( )( )
( )( )
C
i
v i
B o
B o
i
o
i
e B C o
e B C o
B o
i
o
i
e B
B
C o
o
i
b
b
o
i
o
i
e B
B
i
b
e B
i B
b
C o
o
b
o
C o
b o
o
R
Z
A A
oo equation t this use can or we

R r
R r
I
I
A
, r 10 R and 10R r if
r R R r
R r
I
I
A
r R
R
R r
r
I
I
I
I
I
I
A

r R
R
I
I
and
r R
I R
I
R r
r
I
I
and
R r
I r
I
circuits output and input the to rule divider - current
the applying by determined is gain current The
=
= ~ =
> >
+ +
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
+
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
Phase Relationship
The phase relationship between input and output is 180 degrees. The negative sign used in
the voltage gain formulas indicates the inversion.
Common-Emitter (CE) Fixed-Bias Configuration
CE Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
re Model
You still need to determine |, re, and ro.
CE Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
Impedance Calculations
Input Impedance: Output Impedance:

2 1
2 1
2 1
R R
R R
R || R R
+
= =
'
e r || R Zi B
'
=
o C r || R Zo=
C
C
10R ro
R Zo
>
~
CE Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration

Gain Calculations
Voltage Gain (Av):

Current Gain (Ai):

Current Gain from Voltage Gain:

e
o C
i
o
v
r
r || R
V
V
A

= =
C o
e
C
i
o
v
10R r
r
R
V
V
A
>
~ =
) r R )( R (r
r R
I
I
A
e C o
o
i
o
i
|
|
+
'
+
'
= =
C o
e i
o
i
10R r
r R
R
I
I
A
>
+
'
'
~ =
|
e C o
i
o
i
r 10 R , 10R r
I
I
A
|
|
> ' >
~ =
C
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
CE Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
Voltage Gain
e
C
v C o
e
o C
v
o C
e
i
o
e
i
b
o C b O
r
R
A 10R or r if
r
) r || (R
A
) r || (R
r
V
V
r
V
I
) r || )(R I ( V

= > O =

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
CE Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
Current gain
( )( )
( )
( )
e
e o
o
i
o
i
C o
e C o
o
i
o
i
B 2 1
r R'
R'

r R' r
r R'
I
I
A
, R 10 r for
r R' R r
r R'
I
I
A
R R || R R'
format. same the have
gain will current for the equation the , R' the
for except ion, configurat bias - fixed emitter -
common that similar to so is network the since
+
~
+
~ =
>
+ +
= =
= =
CE Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
C
i
V i
i
o
i
i
o
i
e
R
Z
A A
option an as
I
I
A
R'
R'
I
I
A
, r 10 R' if And
=
~ =
= =
>
|
|
CE Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
Phase Relationship
A CE amplifier configuration will always have a phase relationship between input and
output is 180 degrees. This is independent of the DC bias.
CE Voltage-Divider Bias Configuration
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Unbypassed R
E
re Model
Again you need to determine |, re.
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration

Impedance Calculations
Input Impedance: Output Impedance:

E e b
1)R ( r Z + + = | |
) R (r Z
E e b
+ ~ |
e E

E b
r R
R Z
>>
~ |
b B i
Z || R Z =
C o
R Z =
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Defining the input impedance of a transistor with an
unbypassed emitter resistor
E b
e E
E e b
E e
b
i
b
E b e b i
E e e b i
R Z
to reduced be can above eqn , r an greater th much is R since
R r Z
1, an greater th normally is since
R ) 1 ( r
I
V
Z
R I ) 1 ( r I V
R I r I V
: side input the to KVL Applying
~
+ ~
+ + = =
+ + =
+ =
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Voltage Gain (Av):

Current Gain (Ai):

Current Gain from Voltage Gain:

Gain Calculations
b
C
i
o
v
Z
R
V
V
A
|
= =
) R (r Z
R r
R
V
V
A
E e b
E e
C
i
o
v
+ =
+
= =
|
E b
E
C
i
o
v
R Z
R
R
V
V
A
| ~
~ =
b B
B
i
o
i
Z R
R
I
I
A
+
= =
|
C
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
or
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Voltage Gain
E
C
i
o
V
E b
E e
C
i
o
V
E e b
b
C
i
o
V
C
b
i
C b C o o
b
i
b
R
R
V
V
A
R ion Z approximat for the and
R r
R
V
V
A
gives ) R (r Z ng substituti
Z
R
V
V
A
R
Z
V

R I R I V
Z
V
I

= =
~
+

= =
+ =

= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= =
=
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Current Gain
C
R
Z
A A
Z R
R
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
I
I
I I
Z R
R
I
I
Z R
I R
I
: in result ll circuit wi input the to rule divider - current the Applying . I I
ion approximat permit the to Z to close often too is R of magnitude The
i
v i
b B
B
i
b
b
o
i
o
i
b
o
b o
b B
B
i
b
b B
i B
b
i b
b B
=
+
= = =
=
=
+
=
+
=
=
|
|
|
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Phase Relationship
A CE amplifier configuration will always have a phase relationship between input and
output is 180 degrees. This is independent of the DC bias.
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Bypassed RE

This is the same circuit as the CE fixed-bias configuration and therefore can be solved
using the same re model.
CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
Emitter-Follower Configuration
You may recognize this as the Common-Collector configuration. Indeed they are the same
circuit.
Note the input is on the base and the output is from the emitter.
re Model
You still need to determine | and re.
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Impedance Calculations
Input Impedance:

b B i
Z || R Z =
E e b
1)R ( r Z + + = | |
) R (r Z
E e b
+ ~ |
E b
R Z | ~
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Calculation for the current I
e
E e
i
e
e
e
e
E
e
i
E e
i
e
b
b
i
b e
b
i
b
R r
V
I
r

r
1) (
r
and
1) ( but
R
1) (
r
V

1)R ( r
1)V (
I
gives for Z g subtitutin
Z
V
1) ( 1)I ( I
Z
V
I
+
=
= ~
+
~ +
+
(

+
=
+ +
+
=
+ = + =
=
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Impedance Calculations (contd)
Output Impedance:

e E o
r || R Z =
e E

e o
r R
r Z
>>
~
E e
i
e
R r
V
I
ion configurat follower emitter for the impedence output the Defining
+
=
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Gain Calculations
Voltage Gain (Av):

Current Gain (Ai):

Current Gain from Voltage Gain:

e E
E
i
o
v
r R
R
V
V
A
+
= =
E e E e E
i
o
v
R r R , r R
1
V
V
A
~ + >>
~ =
b B
B
i
Z R
R
A
+
~
|
E
i
v i
R
Z
A A =
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Voltage gain
1
V
V
A
R r R
, r an greater th much usually R
r R
R
V
V
A
r R
V R
V
i
o
v
E e E
e E
e E
E
i
o
v
e E
i E
o
~ =
~ +
+
= =
+
=
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Current Gain
E
i
v i
b B
B
i
b B
B
i
b
b
o
i
o
i
b
o
b e o
b B
B
i
b
b B
i B
b
R
Z
A A or
Z R
R
A
, ) 1 ( since
Z R
R
) 1 (
I
I
I
I
I
I
A
) 1 (
I
I
I ) 1 ( I I
Z R
R
I
I
Z R
I R
I
=
+
~
~ +
+
+ = = =
+ =
+ = =
+
=
+
=
|
| |
|
|
|
Emitter-Follower Configuration
Phase Relationship
A CC amplifier or Emitter Follower configuration has no phase shift between input and
output.
V
o

Emitter-Follower Configuration
Common-Base (CB) Configuration
The input (Vi) is applied to the emitter and the output (Vo) is from the collector.

The Common-Base is characterized as having low input impedance and high output
impedance with a current gain less than 1 and a very high voltage gain.
re Model
You will need to determine o and re.
Common-Base (CB) Configuration
Impedance Calculations
Input Impedance: Output Impedance:

e E i
r || R Z =
C o
R Z =
Common-Base (CB) Configuration
Gain Calculations
Voltage Gain (Av):

Current Gain (Ai):

e
C
e
C
i
o
v
r
R
r
R
V
V
A ~ = =
o
1
I
I
A
i
o
i
~ = = o
Common-Base (CB) Configuration
Voltage & Current gain
e
C
e
C
i
o
V
C
e
i
o
e
i
e
C e
C c C o o
r
R
r
R

V
V
A
R
r
V
V
r
V
I
R I
) R I ( R I V
~ = =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=
=
= =
1
I
I
A
I I I
I I
i
o
i
i e o
i e
= = =
= =
=
o
o o
Common-Base (CB) Configuration
Phase Relationship
A CB amplifier configuration has no phase shift between input and output.
V
o

Common-Base (CB) Configuration
Collector DC Feedback Configuration
The network has a dc feedback resistor for increased stability, yet the capacitor C
3
will
shift portions of the feedback resistance to the input and output sections of the network
in the ac domain. The portion of R
F
shifted to the input or output side will be determined
by the desired ac input and output resistance levels.
Substituting the re equivalent circuit into the ac equivalent network
e
r || R Z
F1 i
=
o F2 C o
r || R || R Z =
2
||
F C o
R R Z ~
Collector DC Feedback Configuration
Impedance Calculations
Input Impedance: Output Impedance:

Voltage Gain
e
C F2
i
o
v
C o
e
C F2 o
i
o
v
e
i
o
e
i
b
b o
C F2 o
r
R || R
V
V
A
, 10R r for
r
R || R || r
V
V
A
R'
r
V
V
r
V
I
R' I V
R || R || r R'
= =
>
= =
=
=
=
=
Collector DC Feedback Configuration
Current Gain
( )( )
( )
C
i
V
i
o
i
F2 o
C
i
o
i
C F2 o F1
F2 o F1
i
o
i
F1 e F1 e F1
e F1 C
F1
i
o
i
e F
F1
C i
b
b
o
i
o
i
C b
o
C
b
o
F2 o
e F
F
i
b
e F
i F
b
R
Z
A
I
I
A or
R || r
R
1

I
I
A
R R || r R
) R || (r R
I
I
A
R r R , r n larger tha much usually is R since
r R R R'
R R'
I
I
A
r R
R
.
R R'
R'
I
I
.
I
I
I
I
A
, gain current the
R R'
R'
I
I
or
R R'
I R'
I
R || r R' using side output for the and
r R
R
I
I
or
r R
I R
I
side input For the
= =
+
~ =
+
~ =
~ +
+ +
= =
+ +
= = =
+
=
+
=
=
+
=
+
=
Collector DC Feedback Configuration
Approximate Hybrid Equivalent Circuit
The h-parameters can be derived from the re model:

hie = |re hib = re
hfe = | hfb = -o
hoe = 1/ro

The h-parameters are also found in the specification sheet for the transistor.
Hybrid equivalent model re equivalent model
Approximate Common-Emitter Equivalent Circuit
Hybrid equivalent model
re equivalent model
Approximate Common-Base Equivalent Circuit
Troubleshooting
1. Check the DC bias voltages if not correct check power supply, resistors, transistor.
Also check to ensure that the coupling capacitor between amplifier stages is OK.

2. Check the AC voltages if not correct check transistor, capacitors and the loading effect
of the next stage.
Practical Applications
Audio Mixer

Preamplifier

Random-Noise Generator

Sound Modulated Light Source
Assignment #1
1. Derive the formulas for Zi, Zo, AV and Ai in a CE Emitter-Bias Configuration
with unbypassed RE and Emitter Follower Configulation with the effect of ro.
Show your equivalent circuit and complete derivations. You can use