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PERSONALITY

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

Personality
At the end of this session, you should understand:

The nature of personality The different approaches to personality theory and their relevance to consumer behaviour The self-concept and its influence on consumer behaviour The concept of brand personality and its importance in marketing

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Personality - defined
The characteristic patterns of behaviour and

thought that are a reflection of a consumers psychological systems

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Compare these advertisements


See EXHIBIT 7.1 and EXHIBIT 7.2, page 191. PowerPoint slides supplied on the Instructor Resource CD to accompany Consumer Behaviour include advertisement images.

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Personality theories
The following are approaches to personality theory:

Psychoanalytical theory
Social/environment theories

Trait theory
Self concept theory

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Psychoanalytic personality theory


Based on the idea that adult behaviour

is a reflection of childhood experiences


Sigmund Freud believed that unconscious thoughts

controlled the conscious mind and this plays a significant role in developing our personalities
This is very much linked to the concepts of human

motivation and drives (Chapter 8)

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Psychoanalytic personality theory


Five key stages of childhood development that

Freud believed influenced personality development:


Oral Anal Phallic Latent Genital

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Psychoanalytic personality theory


Freud proposed that personality is made up of

three parts:

Id

Our primitive instincts or drives Our urge to do what is right achieving perfection The balance between the id and the superego

Superego

Ego

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Which do these ads appeal to?


See EXHIBIT 7.3 Paradise biscuits , page 194. See EXHIBIT 7.4 Advanced VO5 Leave-in Anti-Frizz Conditioner, page 194. See EXHIBIT 7.5 Heart Foundation, page 196. PowerPoint slides supplied on the Instructor Resource CD to accompany Consumer Behaviour include advertisement images.

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Psychoanalytic personality theory


Application of Freuds ideas in marketing:

Appeal to underlying motivations and drives, e.g.:


Underlying sexual connotations in ads Show glamorous people using the product - appealing to social acceptance of the product rather than its practical uses

Communicate message that anxiety may be reduced with the use of a particular product/service

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Psychoanalytic personality theory


Neo-Freudians

Those who further developed Freuds ideas but presented new ways of looking at personality
Many consider that although the unconscious mind is important, other factors such as the conscious mind and external factors are also important influences on personality One of the best known Neo-Freudians is Carl Jung

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Social/environment theories of personality


Jungian personality types

Carl Jung believed that individuals engage in constant adaptation and creative development, based on the environment Suggested there are three components of personality: The ego

Our current conscious thoughts Where information is buried or stored day to day but can be remembered when there is a trigger Comprises memory traces from an individuals ancestral past

The personal unconscious

The collective unconscious

Believed the self came from a a mix of the conscious and unconscious Formed four classifications of psychological function personality types

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Jungs psychological types

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Other contributors to personality theory


Erik Erikson

See EXHIBIT 7.6 Advertisements reflect the expression of a consumers identity, page 200. PowerPoint slides supplied on the Instructor Resource CD to accompany Consumer Behaviour include advertisement images.

Considered ego to be a major motivating force in human development and personality The stronger your selfidentity, the more confident and assertive you are Implications for marketing are that people are more likely to buy brands that reflect their self image

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Other contributors to personality theory


Alfred Adler
Believed that people are born with an inbuilt sense

of inferiority We strive for something better - express our superiority We are influenced by heredity, the environment and intrinsic factors

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Other contributors to personality theory


Karen Horneys basic anxiety theory

Argued that sociocultural factors could explain personality differences, not just basic gender differences She believed that basic anxiety leads to conflict and an intense need for approval and affection Marketers commonly appeal to needs for greater self-improvement and social standing

See EXHIBIT 7.7 Peugeot makes you feel superior, page 201. PowerPoint slides supplied on the Instructor Resource CD to accompany Consumer Behaviour include advertisement images.

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Trait theories of personality


A trait is a personality characteristic, e.g. outgoing

or shy
Trait theories attempt to identify and categorise

personality characteristics
Marketers can use this information to identify

characteristics of a certain market segment

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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The big five personality traits


Openness to experience

Interest in new things How methodical you are Degree of sociability Extent of a persons social likeability

Conscientiousness

Extroversion/introversion

Agreeableness

Neuroticism

Perceived emotional stability

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Self-concept theory
Based on the set of attitudes a person holds about

themselves and is made up of self-images and the evaluation of these images


Self-concept is made up of two elements

Self-image Self-esteem

Our self-concept can vary across situations

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Self-image and buying behaviour


The different aspects of self-image that influence

buying behaviour include:

Real self

How we perceive ourselves How we think we are perceived by others How others see us

Ideal self

Social self

Consumers purchase products that reflect their

sense of self
Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski 7-20

Self-image and fashion


A consumers choice of fashion is a reflection of

their personality - it is an outward presentation of their self image


Highly materialistic consumers are more likely to

engage in indulgent purchasing behaviour

Their physical and material possessions convey status, success and prestige

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Brand personality

Brands are often perceived as having a distinct personality Positioning is a technique to market a product so that it occupies a unique position within a consumers mindset Appeals used within advertisements and other promotional materials help establish this uniqueness

See EXHIBIT 7.13 Different brands have different personalities. In the tea category, Dilmah is unique, page 213. PowerPoint slides supplied on the Instructor Resource CD to accompany Consumer Behaviour include advertisement images.

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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Marketing application of personality theories


Using personality tests to gather information about

consumers personality types, e.g.:


Myers-Briggs-type personality type indicator test Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Helps determine personality themes as well as unconscious motivations

Copyright 2005 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Consumer Behaviour by Karen Webb Slides prepared by Sarah Fletcher and Morena Dobrowolski

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