Sei sulla pagina 1di 17

Plastics Processing: Extrusion

Plastics Processing: Blow molding


(a) The hollow piece of heated glass (parison) is first created by a blow mold (see text-book Fig 17.25) 3-piece mold heated glass

(b) The mold is put together

(c) Plunger and hot air push the glass up

- similar to glass blow-molding (d) Hot air blows the glass out towards the mold surface

(e) Mold comes apart, bottle is removed

Plastics Processing: Thermoforming

Sheet of plastic Heated (soft) Molded using a shaped die

Vacuum thermoforming

Plastics Processing: Injection Molding


- Probably the most common, most important, most economical process

Plastics Processing: Injection Molding

Cycle of operation for injection molding


AVI [source: ylmf.com.hk]
[source: www.offshoresolutions.com]

Injection Molding: geometry of the mold

Basic components:

mold pieces (define the geometry of the part), AND


sprue, gates, runners, vents, ejection pins, cooling system

Injection Molding: 2-piece and 3-piece molds

Injection Molding: molds with moving cores and side-action cams


- If the geometry of the part has undercuts [definition ?]

Injection Molding: designing injection molds

1. molding directions number of inserts/cams required, if any 2. parting lines 3. parting planes by extending the parting line outwards 4. gating design where to locate the gate(s) ? 5. multiple cavity mold fix relative positions of the multiple parts 6. runners: flow of plastic into the cavity 7. sprue located: 8. functional parts of the mold - ejection system: to eject the molded part

- systems to eject the solidified runners


- alignment rods: to keep all mold components aligned

Injection Molding: designing injection molds


1. molding directions number of inserts/cams required, if any 2. parting lines 3. parting planes by extending the parting line outwards 4. gating design where to locate the gate(s) ?
cup

5. multiple cavity mold fix relative positions of the multiple parts


6. runners: flow of plastic into the cavity 7. sprue located: 8. functional parts of the mold - ejection system: to eject the molded part
parting plane

parting line

gate

- systems to eject the solidified runners


- alignment rods: to keep all mold components aligned
nozzle knob

cavity part

cavity ejection plate cavity

runner cavity

core (a)

core (b)

core (c)

core (d)

Designing injection molds: mold in action

Nozzle Nozzle Runner Cavity Runner Part Cavity Cavity Knob

Part

Part
Stripper plate

[source: Lec notes, Prof T. Gutosky, MIT]

Designing injection molds: typical features

[source: www.idsa-mp.org]

Designing injection molds: typical features

(a) Shut-off hole: no side action required

(b) Latch: no side action required

(c) Angled Latch: Side action cam required

Considerations in design of injection molded parts


Guideline (2) avoid thick cross-sections

[source: GE plastics: Injection Molding Design Guidelines]

Considerations in design of injection molded parts


Guideline (3) gate location determines weld lines

weld lines

* Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_7.htm

Raw materials in the form if thermoplastic pallets,granules,or powder, placed into a hopper and fed into extruder barrel. The barrel is equipped with a screw that blends the pallets and conveys them down the barrel

Heaters around the extruders barrels heats the pellets and liquefies them
Screw has 3-sections Feed section Melt or transition section Pumping section.