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# Research Methodology Topic Data Analysis

## Mr. Darshan S. Patil Ms. Gunjan Doshi

Content
Introduction of topic Data Processing Approaches to analysis Concept of Hypothesis testing

Introduction
Data analysis is a practice in which data is ordered and organized. To gain useful information from the obtained data. To do the require manipulation in the data during analysis. Raw data can be of various forms and at same time very useful.

Data Processing
Data processing refers to a discrete step in the information processing cycle. In information processing, data is acquired, entered, validated, processed, stored, and output, either in response to queries or in the form of routine reports. One of the key points about the term data processing is that it is used by some synonymously with information processing, while others make a distinction between the two.

Types of Analysis
Univariate
Bivariate Multivariate

Univariate Analysis
Univariate data is a data which contain single variable. It has no relation with the causes. The main purpose of univariate data is to describe the nature of the set of data. The central tendency of univariate data is mean, mode and median. For representing these data, we have to plot using a single variable only.

Example Of Univariate
A ranking of 5 brands of audio systems by sample of consumer may produce ordinal scale data consisting of these brand. Univariate analysis can be done to make such as 70% of the sample ranked Brand A as no. 1, or 20% of sample ranked brand B as no.1.

Bivariate Analysis
Bivariate analysis is a kind of data analysis that explores the association between two variables. It deals with the causes or relationship. The main purpose of bivariate data is to explain the nature of the set of data. The Set of data such as Correlation, Comparison, etc.

Example of Bivariate
Bivariate analysis such as Brand ranked as no.1 & say, the income group to which the respondant belongs. These would tell us if a significant association exist between these variable

Multivariate Analysis
Multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques allow more than two variables to be analysed at once. Helps understand the joint or common variation among a set of variables

Example Of Multivariate
We can measure the simultaneously effects of advertising, pricing & sales Promotion on sales through a multivariate technique.

## Concept of Hypothesis testing

A statistical hypothesis test is a method of making decisions using data, whether from a controlled experiment or an observational study (not controlled). Hypothesis testing is sometimes called confirmatory data analysis. Statistical hypothesis testing is a key technique of frequents statistical inference

## Hypothesis testing is a statistical method for:

drawing inferences about a population based on sample data from such population assessing the statistical significance of the difference between populations on a variable of interest based on sample data from such populations choosing among alternative courses of action

Null Hypothesis
Null hypothesis is denoted by H0 and always asserts that no difference exists between a population parameter and a single value, generally the value of the variable of interest as given by the sample. The null hypothesis is always stated as a mathematical equality.

Alternative Hypothesis
Alternative hypothesis is denoted by HA and is the assertion that answers the question about the value of a variable of interest.