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Control Systems

Piu Ghosh Instrumentation And Control Department

History of Control Hardware

Pneumatic Implementation:
In the early implementation of automatic control systems, information flow was accomplished by pneumatic transmission, and computation was done by mechanical devices using bellows, spring etc.

Problems associated with pneumatic implementation: Transmission. Calculation

History (cont.)

Electron analog implementation:

Electrons are used as the medium of transmission in his type of implementation mode. Computation devices are still the same as before.

Same Problems associated with electron analog implementation.

History (cont.)
Digital Implementation: Transmission: Digital signals are far less

sensitive to noise.
Calculation: The computational devices

are digital computers.

Computer Control Networks

1. PC Control: Good for small processes such as laboratory prototype or pilot plants, where the number of control loops is relatively small


Main Computer

Final control element


Data acquisition

Computer Control Networks

2.Programmable Logic Controller
The class of control systems which can be

programmed to execute plant shutdown and / or interlock /sequence logics to the specified safety integrity levels. It uses a programmable memory to store instructions and specific functions.

The First Programmable Logic Controllers

Introduced in the late 1960s Developed to offer the same functionality as the existing

relay logic systems

Programmable, reusable and reliable

Could withstand a harsh industrial environment They had no hard drive, they had battery backup

Could start in seconds

Used Ladder Logic for programming

POWER SUPPLY Provides the voltage needed to run the primary PLC components. I/O MODULES Provides signal conversion and isolation between the internal logic-level signals inside the PLC and the fields high level signal. PROCESSOR Provides intelligence to command and govern the activities of the entire PLC systems. PROGRAMMING DEVICE used to enter the desired program that will determine the sequence of operation and control of process equipment or driven machine. USER INTERFACE PLCs may need to interact with people for the purpose of configuration, alarm reporting or everyday control . A Human-Machine Interface(HMI) is employed for this purpose. HMIs are also referred to as MMIs (Man Machine Interface) and GUIs (Graphical User Interface).Text displays are available as well as graphical touch screens. More complex systems use a programming and monitoring software installed on a computer, with the PLC connected via a communication interface.

PLCs have built in communications ports, usually 9-pin RS-232,but optionallyEIA-485 or Ethernet.Modbus,BACnet or DF1is usually included as one of the communication protocols. Other options include various fieldbuses such as Device Net or Profibus. Other communications protocols that may be used are listed in the List of automation protocols . Most modern PLCs can communicate over a network to some other system, such as a computer running a SCADA(Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system or web browser. PLCs used in larger I/O systems may have peer-to-peer (P2P) communication between processors. This allows separate parts of a complex process to have individual control while allowing the subsystems to co-ordinate over the communication link. These communication links are also often used for HMI devices such as keypads or PC-type workstations.

PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer, then downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC. The program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other nonvolatile flash memory. Often, a single PLC can be programmed to replace thousands of relays. Under the IEC 61131-3 standard, PLCs can be programmed using standards-based programming languages.PLC programs are never perfectly interchangeable between different makers.

While the PLC is running, the scanning process includes the following four phases, which are repeated continuously as individual cycles of operation:


Read Inputs Scan


Program Execution

Diagnostics/ Comm

Output Scan

The time it takes to implement a scan cycle is called SCAN TIME. The scan time composed of the program scan time, which is the time required for solving the control program, and the I/O update time, or time required to read inputs and update outputs. The program scan time generally depends on the amount of memory taken by the control program and type of instructions used in the program. The time to make a single scan can vary from 1 ms to 100 ms.


Advantages of a PLC Control System

Eliminates much of the hard wiring that was associated with conventional relay control circuits. Increased Reliability: Once a program has been written and tested it can be downloaded to other. More Flexibility: Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) can provide system updates for a process by simply sending out a new program. Lower Costs: Originally PLCs were designed to replace relay control logic. The cost savings using PLCs have been so significant that relay control is becoming obsolete, except for power applications. Communications Capability: A PLC can communicate with other controllers or computer equipment. Faster Response Time: PLCs operate in real-time which means that an event taking place in the field will result in an operation or output taking place. Easier To Troubleshoot: PLCs have resident diagnostic and override functions allowing users to easily trace and correct software and hardware problems.

Leading Brands Of PLC

AMERICAN 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. 4. Allen Bradley Gould Modicon Texas Instruments General Electric Westinghouse Siemens Klockner & Mouller Festo Telemechanique Toshiba Omron Fanuc Mitsubishi




The new PLC standard IEC 61131

Since 1992, an international standard now exists for programmable logic controllers and associated peripheral devices (programming and diagnostic tools, testing equipment, man-to-machine interfaces etc.). The new IEC 61131 standard consists of five parts: Part 1: General information Part 2: Equipment requirements and tests Part 3: Programming languages Part 4: User guidelines (in preparation with IEC) Part 5: Messaging service specification (in preparation with IEC)

Computer Control Networks

3. Distributed Control System:

Control system comprising of geographically and functionally distributed hardware and software, which not only performs the assigned control and monitoring function but also provides information, data from many subsystems to other subsystems over dedicated communication network.

A Control system which is functionally as well as geographically distributed.

Advantage of DCS over centralized: 1.System overloading reduced 2.Back-up/Redundancy available 3.More Computing power(parallel processing) 4.Improved reliability as plant can survive failure of one processor


Control algorithms are configured by engineers through the engineering stations and executed in the controller. Controllers can be implemented in simplex or redundant configurations per user requirement.

I/O Module:
I/O modules shall communicate with processor modules serially either through back-plane or through I/O communication network. I/O network shall always be redundant.



Type of Input / Output Modules :AI (Analog Input Conventional/ Smart / HART / Foundation Fieldbus),AO (Analog output Conventional /Smart / HART/Foundation Fieldbus),DI (Digital Input),DO (Digital Output). Communication Modules : Controls the communication of the control network and information network. Power Supply Modules Provides the power supply to various modules as required. Engineering console: Main Engineer interface device through which the system configuration and maintenance engineer can interface with the system.

Operator Station and HMI

Each station supports control, monitoring, and configuration of the entire system. This allows a uniform graphical interface for all plant operations.A set of standard system graphical displays are supplied with the system,including: Single point display for monitoring and control Real-time and historical trend display. Alarm status and history display.

History Module
-Like the harddisk of PCs - Store the configurations of the DCS as well as the configurations of all the points in the plant - Store the graphic files that are shown in the console and in most systems these days they are able to store some plant operating data

Data Historian
- Software that are dedicated to store process variables, set points and output values - They are usually of higher scanning rates than that available in the history module.

Various types of display

- Group displays - Overview displays - Detail displays - Graphic displays - Trend displays

Shows the operating parameters of group of control loops such as four, eight, twelve, or sixteen control loops, arranged in rows so that they look like the faces of instruments on an instrument panel.

group display

Detail Displays
- Specific to a single loop or control function - Includes additional information defining constants, limits, and other characteristics of the function

Graphic Displays
Graphic display capability allows a picture to be drawn on the screen so that the operator can look at a portion of the process more realistically than by watching a row of bar graphs

Trend Displays
- Trend displays are the distributed control system equivalents of chart records. - Shows change in process value that have taken place over a period of time

Working of DCS
The working of DCS can be divided into two parts .
1. Hardware Flow

The flow of signal passes from sensors/ transmitters to a local field junction box. From field junction box through a multi core cable it goes to the main junction box. Again from main junction box it comes to a marshalling cabinet where the wires enter into the control panel. After signal entering the panel, the signal wire goes into the input card connected to the controller. Controller processes the data according to the logic created and gives output to the Final Control Element through output cards, following the same route.

Working of DCS
2. Software
There is a scan cycle which needs to be completed for the execution of an instruction needed to control the process.The following steps occur for each scan period: 1.The status of inputs from the process through the input card are checked. 2.Then the values are updated in the program and according to the logic prepared by the programmer output values are decided. 3.These outputs then go to the field through output cards. 4.The status is updated in the SCADA as well as the changes are stored for future reference in the historian. 5.Any alarms i.e. deviations in the process are there are also noted and stored.

Following functional requirements as a minimum should be met by DCS system: Control Data Acquisition Alarming Logging and report generation Historical data storage Trending System diagnostics. System security

Advantages of DCS

Access a large amount of current information from the data highway. Monitoring trends of past process conditions. Readily install new on-line measurements together with local computers. Alternate quickly among standard control strategies and readjust controller parameters in software. Digital DCS systems are more flexible. Control algorithms can be changed and control configuration can be modified without having rewiring the system.

DCS Vendors

Baily Foxboro Yokogawa Siemens

Benefits of Selecting the "Right" Automation Technology

Selecting the right technology and the right supplier can help a company respond quickly to changing market conditions minimize Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) over the life of your plant create a system which is easily maintainable/upgradeable for the long-term achieve its future goals and vision

The Seven Questions to Ask Yourself Before Choosing a System

1. What are you manufacturing, and how? 2. What is the value of the product being

manufactured? and the cost of downtime? 3. What do you view as the "heart" of the system? 4. What does the operator need to be successful? 5. What system performance is required? 6. What degree of customization is required? 7. What are your engineering expectations?

1. What are you manufacturing and how?

Number of products manufactured: Single product or

Multiple products Recipe parameters: Constant or Variable Procedures: Single procedure or Multiple (different) procedures Equipment utilization and arbitration: Fixed/none or Flexible/often Frequency of changes to formulas and recipes: Never or Often

Manufacturing or assembly of specific items.

Product is visible as it moves through the process. High-speed logic control (such as motors) Simple Batch control

Involves the combination and/or transformation of raw materials.

Often impossible to visually see the product as it moves through the process. Regulatory/Analog (loop) control Complex Batch Control



2. What is the value of the product being manufactured and the cost of downtime?
Value of the individual component being manufactured is relatively low. The value of a batch can be very high. Downtime not only results in lost production, but can result in dangerous conditions. Downtime can result in process equipment damage (product hardens, etc.)


Downtime does not typically damage the process equipment.

Return to steady state production after an outage is short and relatively straightforward

Return to steady state production after an unplanned outage can be long, expensive, and difficult


Downtime mainly results in lost production.

3. What do you view as the "heart" of the system?

Typically, the Typically, the heart of the system heart of the is the controller. system is the HMI



4. What does the operator need to be successful?

The operator's primary role is to The operators interaction is handle exceptions. typically required to keep the process in its target performance range. Status information (On/Off, Run/Stop) is critical for the operator. Exception-based alarming is key information for the operator. Faceplates and analog trends are critical to see what is happening to the process. Alarm management is key to safe operation of the process and for responding effectively during plant upset conditions. Failure of the HMI could force the shutdown of the process


Manufacturing might be able to run "lights-out.


5. What system performance is required?

Fast logic scan (approx. 10ms) is required to perform motor or motion control. Redundancy may not be cost justified. Control loops require deterministic scan execution at a speed of 100 to 500 ms. System redundancy is often required.


Analog Control: Simple PID only. Diagnostics to tell you when something is broken.

Analog Control: Simple to advanced PID control up to Advanced Process Control. Failure of the HMI could force the shutdown of the process


System can be taken offline to make configuration changes.

Online configuration changes often required.

6. What degree of customization is required?

High level programming languages are available for creating custom logic. Customized routines usually required . Custom logic created from existing function blocks. Many algorithms (i.e. PID) are complex and do not vary among applications. Standard application libraries are expected (function blocks and faceplates).

Standard libraries considered nice features.

Provisions must be available to integrate functions products into an integrated architecture.

Entire system is expected to

function as a complete solution.



7. What are your engineering expectations?

Program/configure individual components, integrate later (bottom-up). Desire customizable platforms to build upon. Up-front design of complete system before implementation begins (top-down). Looking for significant "out-ofthe-box" functionality.

System designed to be flexible.

Solution is generic in nature, to be applied on a wide variety of applications. Use ladder logic to configure application.

System designed to make it "easy" to engineer process applications. Use of pre-defined, pre-tested functions saves time.

Use function block diagram to configuration application.