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6 Social Issues and Environment

-Azhar Ali

From Sustainable to Unsustainable development

The development without thinking about the ill-affects on the biotic and abiotic factors leads to unsustainability

E.g. Overuse of coal and oil may lead to total loss of fossil fuels Unless we find alternatives for the same, the future generation will have to survive without energy resources

Sustainable Development

The sustainable development is a process of betterment of life, in all sectors of society i.e. social, economic, educational, health, national security, food and education

Need for Sustainable Development

Almost all environmental problems are the results of

unsustainable development

Overuse of natural resources leads to pollution, cutting of trees has created global warming Laws for Air, Water, Land, Wild Life, Forest have failed to control environmental losses Only way is to accept the concept of sustainable development by making people aware about the needs and methods to control their demands and control over the overuse of resources

Urban problems related to Energy

Conservation of energy resources: Causes of shortage of energy in India Effects of shortage of energy in India Methods of conservation of energy

Water Resources

2. 3. 4.

Classification of water resources: Surface water Water in the solid form Water in the atmosphere Underground water

Water utility

Consumptive use of water mainly for irrigation Non-consumptive use of water for power generation i.e. Hydel power

Partially consumptive use for the public use and for industrial and thermal plants

Uses of water



Domestic use Manufacturing process and power generation Other uses

Quality of water
1. 2. 3. 4.

1. 2. 3.

A. Physical parameters Color Taste and odor Temperature Turbidity B. Chemical parameters Total Dissolved solids (TDS) pH Hardness C. Biological parameters

Means to rehabilitate the affected people

Alternate land should be given Enough compensation must be given Job for at least one person in the family Infrastructure must be developed Arrangements before the launching of the actual project It should be realized that the psychological and cultural loss is never compensated

Ethics and moral values

Ethics is the set of beliefs about right and wrong behavior e.g. cheating Environmental Ethics: It deals with issues related to the rights of the individuals which are fundamental to life and its well being

Basic human values

Equality Co-operation Tolerance Truth Justice Excellence

Acid rains

Main effects are due to Nitric Acid and

Sulfuric acid

1. 2. 3. 4.


Effects: Damages the vegetation Surface and ground water gets affected Soil pH reduces to 3, affects fertility Skin irritation Land and water ecosystem get affected

Measures to control Acid Rain

Reduce emissions at the source itself Use low sulphur coal Replace coal by natural gas

Depletion of Ozone layer

1. 2. 3. 4.

Main cause is Chlorine Effects: Damages the plants Causes cancer Causes destruction of life Affects the natural environment

Measures to control depletion of O3

Minimize the use of Fe and halogens Use CFC free chemicals Reduced use of AC s and refrigerators

Global warming and Green house effect

2. 3. 4. 5.

GHG s are: CFC CH4 N2O CO2 CO

Measures to control global warming

Check the overuse of carbon dioxide Use alternative sources of energy Cut down the transmission losses of electricity Use public transport Clean Development Mechanisms in industries Greenbelt around industries

EPA 1986




Objectives: Protection and improvement of the environment i.e. air, water, soil Prevention of hazards to all living beings i.e. plants, animals and human beings Maintenance of the relationship between the human beings and the natural environment

Penalties for Violation of Act 1986

Imprisonment for a term which may extend up to five years Or Fine which may extend up to Rs. 1 lakh Or Both of the above

Air: Prevention and Control of Pollution Act 1981

1. 2. 3.

Aims and objectives: Prevention, control of air pollution Maintaining the quality of air Establishing of the Boards to prevent and to control the air pollution

Water: Prevention and control of pollution act: 1974




Aims and objectives: Prevention and control of water pollution Maintaining and restoring the wholesomeness of water Establishment of Boards of prevention and control of water pollution

Penalties for violation of the act:

Penalty is imprisonment for a period of three months or a fine up to Rs. 10,000 or both

Wildlife Protection Act 1972




Aims and objectives: Maintenance of the essential ecological processes and lifesupporting systems Preservation of the biodiversity Protection and conservation of wild-life

Penalties for violation

Imprisonment for three years or fine upto Rs. 23,000 or both License may get cancelled

Forest Conservation Act,1980

Aims and objectives: To protect and conserve the forest

Penalties for violation

Imprisonment for six months or more or a fine of Rs. 500 or both For killing elephants imprisonment upto six months or fine upto Rs. 5000 or both

Causes of lack of environmental awareness

Illiteracy and attitude Lack of participation Lack of information Partial information secrecy

Thank you!